MARRIAGEs and the concept of zawj
- Sociological View on the Origin of Marriage
Outside the province of the Glorious Arabic Qur’ān and the Torah (the Pentateuch [first five books] of the Christian Bible), in particular the book of Bereshith, the accounts as to the origin of the institution of marriage are many, and often they reflect the social and cultural evolution of particular ethnic groups.
There are those who, because of laziness in the proper use of the human faculties, to think and reason, hold the misconceived and simplistic traditional view that marriage is everything to do with attraction and the emotion love. As a result, the marriage union is nothing more than the coming together of two people who are pleasing to each other, and agree to coexist indefinitely, while expending, for the mutual benefit of each other, their energies during the continuing states of the period of their lives (time). Unfortunately, as the human race developed, this is the idea that become prevalent, and the common understanding that is reflected as the basis of social marital traditions, or habits, in numerous communities.
When marriages are viewed against that backdrop, it is not difficult to see why that concept has evolved to become nothing more than an arrangement aimed at enabling the attainment, and provision, of emotional satisfaction; and/ or financial benefits; and/ or social status; and/ or political power. It is also not difficult to understand how marriage arrangements came to be viewed as a misogynistic structure, having its origin as a device by males to dominate and use women for their entertainment. However, those opinions are no truer than the view that, for persons to qualify to be the husband and wife of a marriage, and to attain success in making it a real-time blissful and harmonious relationship, it is enough to merely be the male and female in that relationship.
According to the weekly news magazine “The Week”, January 1, 2007, which has editions in the United Kingdom and United States, the most reliable evidence suggests that it’s about 4,350 years old. It also says that the first recorded evidence of marriage ceremonies that unite one woman and one man, dates from about 2350 B.C., in Mesopotamia. The available evidence upon which it relies for both those statements were not provided.
Whatever the singular truth as to its origin, the undeniable fact is that, over thousands of years, marriage evolved into a widespread institution that is embraced by ancient and modern communities. The basis of a marriage, how it is defined, the way in which it is viewed, conducted, and its established rituals and prescribed rules for the conduct ceremonies has evolved and changed over time, depending on the specific geographic and social milieu, culture or demography of the time. More recently, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR), also known as Resolution 217, was adopted by the United Nations General Assembly on 10 December 1948, at the Palais de Chaillot in Paris, France. Article 16 provides that:
Men and women of full age, without any limitation due to race, nationality or religion, have the right to marry and to found a family. They are entitled to equal rights as to marriage, during marriage and at its dissolution. Marriage shall be entered into only with the free and full consent of the intending spouses.
In their several competing proposed definitions of marriage, those who are engaged in the Anthropology, which is the study of aspects of humans within past and present societies, have sought to capture a wide variety of marital practices, perceived across many cultures. The Finnish philosopher and sociologist, Edvard Alexander Westermarck (1862 –1939), in “The History of Human Marriage (1891)” defined marriage as “a more or less durable connection between male and female lasting beyond the mere act of propagation till after the birth of the offspring.”
The Royal Anthropological Institute handbook, Notes and Queries on Anthropology (1951. p. 110), defined marriage as “a union between a man and a woman such that children born to the woman are the recognized legitimate offspring of both partners.” While Sir Edmund Ronald Leach (1910 –1989), a British social anthropologist, viewed and criticized earlier definitions and contended that no one definition of marriage applied to all cultures. He identified six universal factors, namely, (i) parenthood, (ii) coitus, (iii) spousal services; (iv) property rights; (v) maintenace of the children and (v)‘relationship of affinity’, which he then formulatedinto the following list of ten marital rights:
“To establish a legal father of a woman’s children; To establish a legal mother of a man’s children; To give the husband a monopoly in the wife’s sexuality; To give the wife a monopoly in the husband’s sexuality; To give the husband partial or monopolistic rights to the wife’s domestic and other labour services; To give the wife partial or monopolistic rights to the husband’s domestic and other labour services; To give the husband partial or total control over property belonging or potentially accruing to the wife; To give the wife partial or total control over property belonging or potentially accruing to the husband; To establish a joint fund of property – a partnership – for the benefit of the children of the marriage; To establish a socially significant ‘relationship of affinity’ between the husband and his wife’s brothers.”
- The Hebrew Perspective
On reading about the origin of marriage in the book of Bereshith (Genesis), in the Torah, there can be no mistake regarding the Hebrew view that is being expressed in it. The relevant verses provide:
And the Lord GOD said: ‘It is not good for the man to continue to be alone. I am going to make him a help meet (k’negdo) for him’ …but for Ādam, there was not found a help meet for him. And Lord GOD caused the man to fall into a deep sleep, and while he was sleeping, he took one of his ribs and then closed up the flesh over its place. And the rib which the Lord GOD had taken from the man made He a woman, and he brought her to the man. Then the man said:“This is at last bone of my bones And flesh of my flesh.This one will be called Ishshah (Woman), Because she was taken out of a Ish (man).” That is why a man will leave his father and his mother and he will stick to his wife, and they will become one flesh. And both of them continued to be naked,v the man and his wife; yet they were not ashamed. (Gen. Ch. 2:18, 20-25).
The unmistakeable guidance here is that the institution of marriage predates the Akkadadian’s reign over Mesopotamia (modern day Iraq), and most certainly the reign of Sargon (the Great) of Akkad (2334 – 2279 BCE) and the earlier Sumerian dynasties (6500 – 2334 BCE). It is clearly shown here that the Bereshith (Genesis) institution of marriage (which is the Islāmic marriage institution) was a pre-planet Earth (Al-Akhira) establishment that Allāh (The GOD swt) originated and established, during the later of the Creation Periods/Cycles/Days.
The details in the book of Bereshith (Genesis) in the Torah, regarding the the Islāmic institution of marriage is not as extensive as what is contained in the Splendid Arabic Qur’ān, however, it does explain what were its critical features. There is agreement that there is a basic defacto and immutable Divine definition of the Islāmic marriage, which is a union between two persons of the opposite gender from among the human race. Obedience to this divinely established tradition means refraining from making any changes to that divine template. Therefore, all other social, geographical, cultural, and demographic variances to the form and composition of that original divine definition are of the human craving. They expression of the lust and desires of cultures, but they do not equate, correspond or comply with the pre-planet Earth, (Al-Akhira) standard.
As between the Hebrew the Torah and the Splendid Arabic Qur’ān, which is revealed to confirm what is the truth in it and what is not, there is also an accord as regards the origin of the Islāmic marriage as an intrinsic and intricately connected aspect of the actual creation process of the very first Ishshah(Female/Woman). In Hebrew that primordial female is called Havva, while in Arabic and English, the terms are Ḥawwā’ and Eve respectively.
The words, “I am going to make him (Ādam, the primal Ish [man]) a help meet (k’negdo) for him”, and the Divine actions that followed demonstrate the plain Divine intention was to create for Ādam exclusively, a K’negdo. In the Hebrew language, this latter term is rendered to denote someone who would be “at his (the primal Ish’s [man’s]) side”. The commentaries in the Hafstorahs, edited by the former Chief Rabbi of the United Kingdom Dr. Joseph Herman Hertz (1872-1946), speaks to a “helper” in a way that “no other creature on earth can be” “fit to associate” with him, or “corresponding to him”. What this alludes to is a Ishshah(Female/Woman) that would complement the Ish (primal man), thus giving rise to the Bereshith (Genesis) concept of zawj (the universal principle of pair in kind, opposites and compliment), a matter that will be expounded upon later in this effort.
The term K’negdo (meet) does not connote in any way that the function of the woman, and thus a wife, was to just be there; present at the side of her male spouse. It was never to be at his side looking in the mirror, and to be wholly concerned with beautifying herself, carving out her own career, while being available for coitus to populate the “earth”. That distorted picture is perceived only by persons with a perverse mind and understanding, who, because of their vain desires and lust, have put their own twisted spin upon the very clear, pure and noble divine objective. As will be shown, the aim was much greater than the animalistic behaviour in having sexual intercourse, in order to have children that would then get married and leave their parents home, to form new households and repeat the same process.
To acquire the purest concept (from the perspective of the Hebrew book of Bereshith (Genesis) in the Torah) of the term K’negdo (meet) and, as a corollary, the Islāmic institution of marriage, one is also required to possess an equally pure concept of the position and function that was given to Ādam by The Originator-Creator “GOD” (Allāh [swt]). The reason for this is that, for the Ishshah(Female/Woman) to have a clear understanding of her “corresponding” function at the “side” the Ish (man) she is to “help”, there must be an equally clear understanding of what it is Allāh (swt) has divinely designated as the function that Ādam. In contrast to the Splendid Arabic Confirming Qur’ān, what has been retrieved of the original Torah does not provide a clear and unequivocal statement, but is couched the following words:
And GOD said “let us make Man (‘male and female created He them’) in our own image and after our likeness; and let them have dominion over the fish of the sea, and the fowl of the air, and over the cattle, and over all the earth, and over every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth’… and GOD blessed them and God said unto them: “Be fruitful, and multiply, and replenish the earth, and subdue it; and have dominion…” (Gen [Book of Bereshith] Ch. 1:26-28)
These passages were adequately dealt with in my earlier book, “The Universal Significance of Ādam”. If therefore sufficient to merely say that it has absolutely nothing to do with being the same or even of remotely similar essence. The creation of Ādam out of water and the dust of the earth, the K’negdo (meet) out of his “rib”, and the evolution of the subsequent members of the human race out of that single pair of male and female, places Man squarely within the material realm and the system of zawj (pairs). In total contrast, Allāh’s (swt) existence and continuity is “Odd” and the only “One”; there is none “like unto Him”.
Therefore, what the expression “Likeness” alludes to is that, as the male spouse, Ādam’s “Likeness” to Allāh (swt) is in terms of, and could only be in relation to, his position in having “dominion” and being able to exercise delegated power, on behalf of Allāh (swt), the Absolute Cosmic Sovereign Ruler, over “the fish of the sea, and the fowl of the air, and over the cattle, and over all the earth, and over every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth”. Prophet David (pbuh) encapsulates this very point in his Psalms when he said:
For thou hast made him (the Ish [Man)) a little lower than the angels, and hast crowned him with glory and honour. Thou madest him to have dominion over the works of thy hands; thou hast put all things under his feet: All sheep and oxen, yea, and the beasts of the field; The fowl of the air, and the fish of the sea, and whatsoever passeth through the paths of the seas. O Lord our Lord, how excellent is thy name in all the earth! (Pslm. Ch. 8:5-9)
The reference to Man (both male and female) being “in Our own image…or “in the image of The GOD”, as shall be shown, also has absolutely nothing to do with physical similarities. It is well extablished and understood that, as the Encompasser in Knowledge of “all things” great and infinitesimal, hidden and unseen in and beyond the universe, Allāh (swt) could not be material, but more probably a “Spirit” beyond human comprehension. The only other remaining way in which Man could be in the “image of God” is on the moral plane. This then makes sense and would be cohesive and in keeping with Allāh’s (swt) proclaimation of the Sūrah Adth-Dthāriyāt (Ch.51:56) prime directive. This prime decree obliges every Ish (male/man) and Ishshah(Female/Woman) member of the human race, when conducting the affair of exercising dominion over all the things (mentioned in Genesis (Book of Bereshith Ch. 1:26-28; and Psalm (Ch. 8:6-8) and works of Allāh (swt), to voluntarily exercise their moral freedom in choosing to subdue passion, reason intelligently and to will to manage them in a manner that puts the Ish (male/man) and Ishshah(Female/Woman) “in the image of Allāh (swt)”; that is to say they administer all their activities in a way that only “images”, reproduce and reflect Allāh’s (swt) morality. On a practical level, that cohesion can be accomplished only when the person is genuinely obedient, trustworthy, truthful and just, and strive continually to be in a state of total resignation and servitude to the commands, will and desire of Allāh (swt); sincerely preferring to be in a state of ’abudullāh (see post).
The specific Arabic Confirming Qur’ānic expressions that envelope all that is expounded upon in the preceding four paragraphs are the terms Khalēefa and ’Abudullāh (see post). What was therefore revealed is the knowledge that the human nafs and Ish, called Ādam, was created and given the responsibility of Khalēefa of the “earth”; here the word Khalēefa in English means “a vicegerent”. It was primarily his role to have dominance over the “works” of Allāh (swt), and when exercising his duty in managing the affairs of the “earth”, he was under an obligation to do so in a manner that reflected of images Islāmic morals; that proved him to be trustworthy, truthful, obedient and submissive to the commands, desires and will of Absolute Cosmic Sovereign Ruler, on whose behalf he exerts, makes judgements, decisions, and will every exercise of his power.
The K’negdo (meet) who was also the primal Ishshah(Female/Woman), was created from one of the ribs Allāh (swt), took from the Ish (male/man), and that had the effect of connecting them in material substance (originating from water and the dust of clay), and making them the same species (members of the human race). Having those commonalities, also meant that the K’negdo was made of “like nature”, having similar activated moral standards, predispositions, and being similarly enabled with a “like Rūuḥ /Spirit” that gave her, and every subsequent Ishshah (Female/Woman), an innate and enlightened capacity to be highly sensitive when distinguishing between extremely subtle wrongs from what is right. Against that backdrop of natural bio-chemical features and spiritual predispositions, all Ishshah, in their own right (in the total absence of any Ish in their lives) and as female spouses (K’negdo – help meets), that will obediently, faithfully and sincerely, “help”, and support, their male spouses (Ish) in the execution of their functions as Khalēefa of the “earth”, were divinely given the faculties and capabilities to deputise , when the need arose, and exercise the same powers and dominance over the “earth”. As a result, all Ishshah are compelled to exhibit the same innately activated biases, and are held to the same pristine moral standards that the Creator divinely imposed upon the Ish (male/man).
- The Arabic Qur’ānic View
A careful and patient study of the Glorious Arabic Qur’ānic evidence, will prove true that marriage is a divine concept, which Allāh (swt) originated and established during the pre-planet Earth (Al-Akhira) period of human race evolution. As part of the creation scheme, two pre-Earth Al-Akhira natural relationships were brough into existence; the first was between Allāh (swt) and His creation and it is the primary relationship, and next was between the human male and his zawjat, which is the secondary relationship. A highly significant shared feature and purpose of both those relationship is that, at the outset neither of them bore any element of nushooz (meaning, a withholding that causes injustice, disorder, destabilization). In their pristine state and forms, the parties thereto enjoyed a real-time harmonious, tranquil and blissful state with each other. As it relates to the human race, their pristine Islāmic marital condition did not turn merely upon the fact that the parties thereto were a single male and female, and on its own, that gender requirement is still not sufficient in modern times, to produce a successful harmonious, tranquil and blissful state.
As explained earlier, the concept of marriage is an ancient institution that was not the product of human intelligence, and it existed as part of the system of zawj, long before the first two human beings were bonded together in a sacred union, as husband and wife. What is being promulgated, and the contention in this effort, is that in ancient pre-planet Earth Al-Akhira, there existed certain specific Divine requirements for humans to qualify as a suitable husband and wife of the genuine and meaningful Islāmic marriage. However, for a very long time now, human beings have lost the knowledge, and real insightful understanding, of those critical necessities.
The specific evolutionary period with which one should be concerned to regain a pure knowledge of the pre-conditions of the Islāmic marriage, is that from the creation of Ādam up to events of his marriage. However, that too has a context and it is critical to briefly look and keep that context in mind when deliberating this most significant issue.
It is critical to know, understand, and remember, that the entire created worlds are the result of an intentional, meticulous, measured, and well orchestrated Divine scheme. Consequently, there are fundamental reasons and purpose behind Allāh’s (swt) use of His divine power to create the heavens and the “earth”, revealing His [swt] own direct and literal words in the Glorious Arabic Qur’ān, and bringing to the attention of the human race the Divine Knowledge of the “Unseen” episodes of pre-planet Earth Al-Akhira. It is a profoundly wise and instructive scheme with a just end and not merely a Divine amusement. It is therefore of great benefit and worth for every person to pause for a moment, and to spend time pondering, look back, and examining the events that occurred from the creation of Ādam, up to the point in time of his commissioning in pre-planet Earth Al-Akhira. However, the correct approach is most important for the attainment of the correct result.
What should by now be clear is that there can be no doubt that Allāh (swt) originated the Islāmic concept of zawj (Even; polarity; pairs) during the primordial Pre-Creation Al-Akhirah period. With the creation of the seven heavens and the earth (Sūrah Alt-Tawbah [Ch.9]:36), during the first two Creation Cycles/Period/Epoch/ Al-Akhirah Days, and forming them also into a pairs (zawj) of realms, the principle was applied and established as a template.
A sound knowledge of this concept is therefore absolutely critical to the pure understanding of the Islāmic Deen and the worship of Allāh(swt). During the further Creation Cycles/Period/Epoch/ Al-Akhirah Days, it was applied to every moving thing falling within His (swt) creation scheme, thereby fixing and making the continuing existence of all animates dependent on the system of zawj:
O mankind! Reverence (be in fear and awe of) your Rabb (Guardian Lord Cherisher and Sustainer) who created you from a single Nafs (Ego/Person), created of like nature his mate, and minha zawjaha (from those two) scattered like countless seeds countless men and women. (Sūrah Al-Nisā’ [Ch.4]: 1)
Its only pair (zawj) in terms of its total opposite is Allāh(swt), who is the Unique with nothing comparable to Him (swt), or like unto Him(swt). He (swt) alone is the absolute embodiment of the attributes of the Everliving, the Self-Susisting, The One, the Odd (First and the Last), the Source, the All-Knowing, The All-Aware and The Wisest the Originator, the Creator, the Exalted above all else, and the most Glorious and Praiseworthy that is rightly entitled and worthy of worship.
The purpose behind the origination and creation of this system is to make every component and product of the zawj (Even; polarity; pairs) an active and willing, or unwilling, participant that irresistibly forms part of the body of proof that is a witness against themselves as to their knowledge of the truth that Allāh(swt) distinguishable, set apart and utterly exalted above all the created things. This incredibly awesome and fearful reality is perhaps what is encapsulated in the following ‘ayāh:
It was We Who created man, and We know what dark suggestions (the body and soul union that is) his nafs (makes to him: for We are nearer to him than (his) jugular vein. (Sūrah Al-Qāf [Ch.50]: 16)
The known truth about the Oneness and Oddness of Allāh (swt), the Rabb, (Lord, Cherisher and Sustainer) cannot get any closer to Man than being locked into how Man was created and the mechanics by which his race perpetuates. It follows that those who are engaged in same gender marital and other relationships are justifiably lewdsome, offensive, and disrespectful, as it amounts to actively taking part in an act that is knowingly, or unwittingly, a denial of the truth to which the person’s very existence is a testimony.
To therefore state the obvious, the Islāmic concept of zawj did not begin with the creation and the Islāmic marriage of Ādam and Ḥawwā’. Those first two ancient male and female human beings (and parents) were not scheduled to be created until thousands of our Ad-Dunyāa, years later; which is after the creation of the JINN race, and late during or after the sixth Creation Cycles/Period/Epoch/ Al-Akhirah Day. It is thus a misconception in believing that the zawj framework for the prevailing Islāmic marriages began with the creation of Ādam and Ḥawwā’, and is hereby debunked.
It is important to note that a very significant part of the revealed Divine evidence, regarding the creation and the Islāmic married life of Ādam and Ḥawwā’ (which was the first among the human race), comprises, what is to Man, parts of the ancient “Unseen Knowledge”. That ancient “Unseen Knowledge” evidencedoes far more than just merely provide information about the fact of their creation. In those Magnificent Divine Arabic Qur’ānic statements, there are enormous amounts of crucial fundamental knowledge, guidance, and teachings, some of which will be expounded in this work.
It is noteworthy and interesting that the “Unseen Knowledge” evidence, revealed and tendered by Allāh (swt), does not provide, a great deal of information about the life of Ādam (as a single person) before the creation of Ḥawwā’. So, what has been made available should be treated as what is essential for the edification, guidance and redemption of members of the human race. As a summary then, what is vital from that “Unseen era” is: (i) Allāh’s (swt) announcement to the Angels concerning the impending creation of Ādam; (ii) the process and substance from which the human species was created; (iii) the source (from and by whom) of all of Ādam’s knowledge of the names, characteristics, and purposeof the things over which he was to rule; (iv) the divinely decreed and intended function Ādam would be expected to perform in every moment and throughout his entire life; and (v) the standards to which he would be held and was obliged (under a Spiritual Legal Trust) to maintain in all his life activities and transactions.
Those “Unseen Knowledge” are in no way meaningless, inadequate or superfluous to need. Rather, those contents form the unshakable foundation upon which to rest all our interpretations and constructions of matters relating to the creation and purpose of the Islāmic marriage, and human married life.
In ancient and modern times in this real of Ad-Dunyaa, the Islāmic marriage is and has always been a contract. It is currently concluded in the marriage ceremony by reciting the following well-known and oft repeated Arabic Qur’ānic statement:
O mankind! Reverence (be in fear and awe of) your Rabb (Guardian Lord Cherisher and Sustainer) who created you from a single Nafs (Ego/Person), created of like nature his mate, and from them twain scattered like countless seeds countless men and women. Reverence (be in fear and awe of) Allāh, through whom ye demand your mutual (rights), and Reverence (be in fear and awe of) the wombs (That bore you): for Allāh ever watches over you (Sūrah Al-Nisā’ [Ch.4]: 1)
This is indeed an ‘ayāh of tremendous value, which captures significant and crucial “Unseen Knowledge”. By way of a concise statement of its points, it speaks to and reminds of the: (i) origin of the human race; (ii) establishment of the Islāmic institution and tradition of marriage; (iii) inviolability of the primal marriage; (iv) inseparability of the continuity of the race as countless people, in their two gender types, from the system zawj; (v) trust upon which women are taken as wives; (vi) spiritual importance of the mother’s womb; (vii) divine origin of the mutual conferred rights governing the entire discipline of marriage; (viii) honour and respect that is due to women as mothers; (ix) responsibility of men as protectors and keepers of the honor of women; and (x) accountability of both the parties to the marriage to Allāh (swt), and the stern warning issued to men, should they fail in their duty and do not refrain from abusing women.
The unambiguous foundation knowledge and understanding that is derived from the above passage is that, the very first, and original pre-Earth, Al-Akhira Islāmic marriage is the only marriage between two human beings that is a sanctity. It is quite plain from the Divine Unseen Knowledge evidence that, at its inception, the Islāmic institution of marriage is not a contractual concept. It owes its existence to Allāh’s (swt) exercise of His Divine Choice and Will to deliberately design and create a female human, infused with “mawwaddatan and “rahmah”for thespecific purpose of being the pair (zawj) and, thereby, to “Even” out the first male human, Ādam. Briefly, “mawwaddatan” has been rendered as “pleasantness, warmth, cordiality, protection, friendliness, unselfish affection, happiness, and politeness”,while the term “rahmah” is a reference to“mercy, compassion, kindness, affection”. Those Arabic words (“mawwaddatan” and rahmah)are mentioned in Sūrah Al-Rūm (Ch.30: 21) as the essential attributes-tool that must be cultivated, and maintained, by both the male and female spouses of the Islāmic marriages. They are vital because, without them, the marriages cannot attain their core objective a state of bliss, harmony and tranquility.
The timing of that very first ancient Islāmic event is not stated in exact terms, however, there are “Unseen Knowledge” statements that help us to be able to deduce, roughly, when it would have occurred. The fact that we are indeed discussing a matter that is “Unseen” and is wholly within the “Divine Knowledge”, not Man’s, because the information predates the creation of Man, elucidates the material and process of his creation, and it further explains that the entire human race originated from a single ego/person/self (khalaqakum min nafsin wahidatin), and that the very first female among the human species, (which facilitated the reproduction of other human beings) was created outside of the consciousness of that very first, and sole human ego/person/self (wakhalaqa minha zawjaha) that existed.
It is acknowledged that this is not an easy subject around which one is able to wrap their mind and retain awakeness of all the facts. To acquire the truth, and a profound understanding of anything, is very often a tedious process, requiring hard work, attention to the details and paying as the cost of not doing something else with the life/time: there are no short cuts. To continue then, the first of that body of references is the following:
We created man from sounding clay, from out of dark-slime (mud) transmuted (moulded into shape); And the JINN race (invisible beings), We had created before (man), from the fire of a scorching wind. (Sūrah Al‑Hijr [Ch.15]: 26-27)
The actual marriage of Ḥawwā’ to Ādam could not logicallytake place if those two individuals did not exist, and what is clear from the above ‘ayāh is that the human race was created some time after Allāh (swt) had completed the creation of the JINN race. What would be helpful then is to establish when that race of people was created, and the following ‘ayāt narrows down this point:
AND [remember that] when We told the angels, “Prostrate yourselves before Adam,” they all prostrated themselves, save Iblis: he [too] was one of the jinns (invisible beings), that turned away and broke the Command of his Rabb (Lord Cherisher and Sustainer). Will ye then take him and his progeny (cohorts) for (your] masters (and protectors) instead of Me, And they are enemies to you! Evil would be the exchange for the wrong-doers! Maashhadtuhum khalqa alssamawati waalardi wala khalqa anfusihim I did not make them witness the creation of the heavens and the earth, nor (even) their own creation: nor is it for Me to take as helpers such as lead (men) astray! (Sūrah Al-Kahf [Ch.18] 50-51)
A sound explanation will be provided, in due course, to explain why, clearly, the JINN race (in its angelic state) was the addressee on the occasion of the above record pre-Earth Al-Akhira episode. The circumstances being referred to in the statements was the commissioning of Ādam as Khalēefa of the “earth”. One is able infer from the situation surrounding the inauguration or commissioning event, that Ḥawwā’ had already been created and was in existence, because immediately after, and in the course of issuing a stern Divine warning regarding the threat posed by Iblis, it is both Ādam and Ḥawwā’ that are expressly addressed. What is in the divine ‘ayāt that also most helpful, is the hitherto “Unseen Knowledge” that the JINN race was not in existence to witness the “creation of the heavens and the earth, nor (even) their own creation”. About that episode the following passage has this to say:
Your Rabb (Guardian-Lord Cherisher and Sustainer) is Allāh, Who created the heavens and the earth in six Periods (Eons/ Al-Akhira Creation Days). (Sūrah Al-‘Arāf [Ch.7]:54)
This “Unseen Divine Knowledge” that, “Allāh…created the heavens and the earth in six Periods /Eons/ Epoch/Al-Akhira Creation Days) opens up two possibilities as regards the timing of the creation of the JINN race. It could be construed and interpreted as meaning, either that the sixth Creation Period (Eon/ Epoch/Al-Akhira Creation Day) had come to an end before the “Invisible Beings (The JINN race)” were created, or else that, late in that sixth Creation Period (Eon/ Epoch/Al-Akhira Creation Day), after having completed the “creation of the heavens and the earth”, Allāh (swt) then created the JINN race.
In light of the fact that Sūrah Al-Hijr (Ch.15: 26-27)) expressly and plainly says “the JINN race (invisible beings), We had created before (Man)from the fire of a scorching wind”, the timing of the creationthat race would therefore have a chain reaction and implcations for the origin of the human race, and the occurrence of the very first pre-Earthhuman Al-Akhira Islāmic marriage. Accordingly, Ādam too would therefore have been created either after the ending of the sixth Creation Period /Eon/ Epoch/Al-Akhira Creation Day and after the JINN race, or during that sixth Creation Period /Eon/ Epoch/Al-Akhira Creation Day, but towards the latter end of it and after Allāh (swt) had completed the “creation of the heavens and the earth”, Allāh (swt) and created the JINN race.
Having established the circumstances and rough period, in the Al-Akhira,that Ādam was created, with the aid of Allāh’s (swt) available Splendid Arabic Qur’ānic Unseen Knowledge, we can further narrow down when Ādam’s marriage to Ḥawwā’ might have taken place. The relevant ‘ayāh is in the passage that was quoted earlier which states:
O mankind! Reverence (be in fear and awe of) your Rabb (Guardian Lord Cherisher and Sustainer) who created you from a single Nafs (Ego/Person), created of like nature ZAWJAHA (his pair, helpmate, wife) and from them twain scattered like countless seeds countless men and women. (Sūrah Al-Nisā’ [Ch.4]: 1)
An obvious deduced truth is that the very first Islāmic marriage, did not take place in this realm of Ad-Dunyaa, but at a time in pre-Earth Al-Akhira, and during its Creation Period /Eon/ Epoch/Al-Akhira Creation Day. The event could not have been recorded by Ādam or Ḥawā’, because the former was not in a conscious state, given that the female was created out of him, while that Islāmic marriageceremonywas intricately tied to the process of creating Ḥawwā’, who logically did not and was in the course of being brought into existence.
The logical consequence of that situation, is the very plain and obvious reality of there being an occurrence of a creation-ceremony, the solemnization of an Islāmic marriage, and a union between two fully matured humans of the opposite genders, who did not knowingly contract and consent to the marriage. Consent was not and could not logically be an essential prerequisite, given the facts relating to the pre-Earth Al-Akhira circumstances.
That Islāmic marriage ceremony was intricately bound to the Divine Will and momentous creative feat of producing, out of the male that was the sole existing human nafs, a female human being (named Ḥawwā’). That Divine action would have the effect of establishing and bringing humans within the system of “Even” (zawj) and cause the spouses as another pair (zawj) to become an integral part of the universal body of pairs (zawj), which evidences and proves Allāh’s (swt) uniqueness, and that He (swt) alone is worthy of worship. The divinely authorized rank accorded to Ḥawwā’ was that of the zawjat (wife, companion, spouse, partner, mate, helpmeet and consort [in the complete Islāmic sense of those terms]) of the divinely nominated Khalēefa of the “earth”. In that position, and strictly within that capacity, her fundamental functions were to:
- Be A Devout Worshipper Of Allāh (swt): Proving herself a devout worshipper of Allāh (swt), when translated into the material reality, would require that she manifest, through her actions, obedience, loyalty and tireless support to Allāh’s (swt) commissioned Khalēefa of the “earth” (not to a mere man). This is a very fine, but critical distinction, which serves to qualify and colour the performance of all the female spousal duties as aiming to serve and support the cause of Allāh (swt), and not the vain desire of a man;
- Be the Receptacle and Source of Divine Mercy: A significant function performed by the female spouse is in being the safe and secure edifice that is used by Allāh (swt) to house His (swt) reproductive creative feats:
Have We not created you from a fluid (held) despicable? – The which We placed in a place of rest (a receptacle like the Earth), firmly fixed, For a period (of gestation), determined (according to need)? For We do determine (according to need); for We are the best to determine (things). (Sūrah Al-Mursalāt [Ch.77]: 20-23)
The womb of the mother is the optimum environment for the evolution and nurturing of a new human being, and what it produces is of tremendous worth, to exponentially increase the wealth of the Khalēefa-spouse.
- Be A Living Proof of the Uniqueness of Allāh (swt): Each of the spouses to the Islāmic marriage are preferred by Allāh (swt) in their own special way. While the male is preferred with greater physical prowess, leadership and guardianship over the female and the children, to the female is given the great honor in being the noble and irrefutable symbol and also a perpetual proof of Allāh’s incomparable qualities and uniqueness. She was created as the beacon of light that evidences the human race as integral to the system of zawj (pairs of the same kind), and that the perpetuation of the human race (every person that is born) is the product of a pair zawj in opposites (a male and female). Thus, she, more so than the male, is a constant reminder of the contrasting Divine attributes of Allāh (swt) in being totally separate and apart from the system of zawj (pairs); “The ODD” and “The ONE”.
It is respectfully submitted that, it is in possessing that knowledge, and holding firm to that guidance as a consciousness, which justifies the mother as three times more deserving of good and close companionship than the father, and why if a person is able to understand, live and demonstrate that awareness and consciousness of the mother (metaphorically speaking, staying at her feet) they would would find paradise (the Holy Prophet, Muhammad (pbuh), has said “Paradise is at her feet.” (Al-Tirmidhi – [Ah!! Would that the women could appreciate the honour and assiduously guard the blessed position they hold])
- Be a Committed Helper: According to the contents of the Sūrah Al-Nisā’ (Ch.4: 1, quoted above) Divine “Unseen Knowledge”, the female was created to be the Khalēefa’s (Ādam’s)“Zawjaha (his pair, helpmate, wife, companion). She is thus the divinely authorized zawjat and, as a qānitātun (a righteous and devout worshipper of Allāh [swt]), she owes a duty to Allāh (swt) to function as the obedient and submissive pair, helpmate, and wife of the Khalēefa of the “earth”, remembering always, when the Khalēefa is absent, to be truthful, honest, and trustworthy in guarding herself, the children and all the other properties (over which the Khalēefa has possession and a particular charge) as though he is present.
- Make Herself Available For Coitus: The following ‘ayāh provides clear proof that the physical pleasures, derived from the act of sexual intercourse, is the least in importance, and is only an incidental benefit to the dutiful male spouses, acting as the Khalēefa of the “earth”:
Your wives are your tilth; go, then, unto your tilth as you may desire, BUT FIRST provide something for your souls, and remain conscious of Allāh, and know that you are destined to meet Him. And give glad tidings unto those who believe. (Sūrah Al-Baqarah [Ch.2]: 223)
It is made very plain in the above passage that most of humanity have got it extremely wrong in their thinking and approach to sexual intercourse. Human beings could never have conceived, let alone create the organs and the electro-chemical and psycho-physical systems that is involved in performing that act. Nor can they ever feel or encapsulate the words to express the measure of gratitude required for such a Divine gift.
The desire to do so is only valid when acting in the capacity of the Khalēefa of the “earth” and that it is only authorized to occur between pairs (zawj) that are spouses to the Islāmic marriage, speaks to its importance in saving the human soul from the odious acts of fornication and adultery, which beckons to the Hell fire.
Further, the above Arabic Qur’ānic provision strongly suggests that the desire for coitus MUST never be refused (save for valid health and wellbeing reasons) by the female. Additionally, the desire to have sex MUST also be equated with the desire for the redemption of the human nafs (body-soul union) from the Hell fire, and to glorify Allāh(swt), and to seek His (swt) mercy while participating in His (swt) reproductive creation process. It is for this reason, the pre-conditions to sexual intercourse are that both the Muslim married spouses are required to: (i) do “Some Good” (basically to perform and fulfill any of the many duties, commands and act of kindess prescribed by Allāh[swt]); and (ii) throughout the Divine (sexual) Process, not cause harm to one’s self by: (a) losing sight of who is deserving of all the gratitude for each and the continuous moments of intense feelings of pleasure and satisfaction; and (b) awareness of whose process it is in truth, and what is its ultimate purpose.
Although human beings are created with the ability to reason and exercise limited freedom in choice and will, Allāh (swt) did not create a situation whereby that primal female could, before or after being created, exercise any choice as to whether or not she wanted to accept Ādam as the man to whom she would be his zawjat. Her being married, and to whom, was thus by Divine proclamation, she had no choice in the matter or in the selection of who in particular she would marry.
The other reason why the source of this information is termed “Unseen”, is because there is an extremely strong allusion, in the Sūrah Al-Nisā’ (Ch.4: 1) ‘ayāh, that Ādam was undergoing a procedure, whereby Ḥawā’ could be created out of him. It was therefore very unlikely that Ādam was in any way conscious of what was being done to him, let alone possess the mental capacity to record that pre-Earth Al-Akhira event. So, in truth, the only sure and certain source of knowledge and information about the creation of Ḥawwā’, and thus the very first Islāmic marriage, is Allāh (swt), because for the primal human, and their progeny, that knowledge is outside of their consciousness, hence it is termed, Unseen Knowledge.
Clearly then, the very first Islāmic marriage of the primal human beings, occurred after the creation of Ādam but during his lifetime while he existed in pre-Earth, Al-Akhira. Further, that very first Islāmic marriage ceremony was by Allāh’s (swt) Divine and Regal Proclamation in the guise of the use of His (swt) Divine Knowledge and Wisdom, and the exercise of His creative skill in perfecting another human being. The details of the process of the creation of Ḥawwā’, and the significance of how she was created, will be considered later. What is immediately important is to consider the significance of the timing of that very first Islāmic marriage, and purpose it was to serve.
- Zawj As Part Of The Cosmic Fitrah
It is certainly of tremendous divine importance and value that humans should acquire a rich knowledge and understanding of the very first Islāmic marriage; its origin, nature, design, position and the timing of its coming into existence, within the context of the Creation chronology.
What is also significant and truly enlightening is the divine “Unseen Knowledge regarding the creation preliminaries. It is evident from the following ’ayāt that Allāh (swt) is the embodiment of Providence:
And remember how the disbelievers plotted against thee that they might imprison thee or kill thee or expel thee. And they plotted and planned and Allāh also planned, and Allāh is the Best of planners. (Sūrah Al-Anfāl [Ch.8]: 30)
The number of months in the sight of Allah has (always been) twelve (months in a year). That (is what was) ordained by Him the day He created the heavens and the earth. Of these, four are sacred. That is the right Deen so wrong not yourselves therein. And fight the idolaters all together as they fight you all together; and know that Allah is with those who restrain themselves. (Sūrah Al-Tawbah [Ch.9]: 36)
Nothing was done without there having been meticulous and copious planning. So, in line with that divine attribute and His All-Encompassing intelligence, well before Allāh (swt) began creating anything, He (swt) originated the “Divine Creation Plan” and, from what we are enlightened to understand, it involved the exercise of His regal powers to decree and establish a standard fitra, one that He (swt) would use and could be applied universally when creating and establishing all things.
In his Arabic–English Lexicon, Volumes 6, pages 2415-6, E.W. Lane saysthat the word fitrah is derived from the Arabic root fa ta ra, the verbal noun being fatrun, and is used to denote the following two things:
1) “muchness, or frequency, or repetition (hence the use of a design, pattern or structure), of the (root) action or its application to many objects or subjects of action; hence he clave, split, slit, rent or cracked it;” and
2) “He created it; that is, He caused it to exist, produced it, or brought it into existence, newly, for the first time, it not having existed before originated it commenced or began it”.
What should therefore be appreciated is that Fitra is something that could be used repeatedly (a template or pattern or prototype or archetype), and would always be a matter that had never existed before, having been originated and created for the first time by Him who is “The ODD”, because He (swt) is “The First” and “The Last”, “The Beginning and “The End”. So, the lesson learnt here from its literal definition, is that the term Fitra denotes a design, or pattern, or template or archetype or prototype or structure, which is capable of being applied cosmically to many objects or subjects of action.
What makes this Arabic term “Fitra” of such critical importance to every sincere Muslim, Jew, and Christian nay!!, every human being, is the fact that it featured greatly, and forms the very core of the rational root of the Way of Life (Deen) decided upon by Prophet Abraham (pbuh). The information that explains Prophet Abraham’s (pbuh) search, and determination as to what inexorably would be his (pbuh) Way of Life (Deen), is contained in the “Unseen Knowledge” related in the Splendid Arabic Qur’ān. It runs as follows:
And remember the time when Ibrāhēm (Abraham) said to his father, Azar: ‘Takest thou idols for gods? Surely, I see thee and thy people in manifest error.’ And thus, did We show Abraham the kingdom of the heavens and the earth that he might (be rightly guided and) li-yakūuna minal- Mūuqinēen. And when the night covered him over, he saw a star. He said: ‘This is Rabbēe (my Lord and Cherisher)!’ But when it set, he said: ‘I like not those that set.’ And when he saw the moon rise with spreading light, he said: ‘This is Rabbēe (my Lord and Cherisher)!.’ But when it set, he said, ‘If Rabbēe (my Lord and Cherisher) guide me not, I shall surely be of the people who go astray. And when he saw the sun rise with spreading light, he said: ‘This is Rabbēe (my Lord and Cherisher), this is the greatest.’ But when it set, he said, ‘O my people, surely I am clear of that which you associate with Allāh. ‘I have faced my face toward Him Who fatarasSamāawāati wal’adth ḥanēefan NEVER! Will I associate partners with Allāh. (Sūrah Al-An’ām [Ch.6]: 74-79)
The Arabic statement “li-yakūuna minal- Mūuqinēen” is rendered to mean that Prophet Abraham (pbuh) was provided with clear knowledge and understanding, which made him certain about being obedient to putting his trust and confidence (Imaan /faith) in the cosmic qualities he identified as being ḥanēefan, so that he would protect himself against harm and injuries. We therefore come away with the simple but profound understanding that, the Abrahamic Way of Life was founded upon divine inspiration for him to contemplate the form, structure, and laws in the lower heavens, and Prophet Abraham’s (pbuh) conclusion that his Creator is the One that had fataras Samāawāati wal’adth ḥanēefan; meaning, the Creator who Originated or Created or Caused the heavens and the earth to exist for the first time, with a design, or pattern, or template or archetype or prototype or structure, that is its natural constitution that inclines towards producing what is enduringly good or noble or righteous and beneficial to Man.
Notice that what is being said of Prophet Abraham (pbuh) is what every person is invited to do, and what has earned him the distinction of being among the Li ‘aulil ‘’albab (“people of Insight and Understanding”). He (pbuh) contemplated and cogitated the kingdoms or wonders of the heavens and the earth, and was not only able to identify that there was a divinely selected, and ordained cosmic fitra, but also that it has distinguishing features.
He recognized that the ordained cosmic fitra has certain peculiar characteristics, namely, that of the universal fitra was inherently haneefan, and it was this that attracted Prophet Abraham (pbuh), and illuminated greatly the telling qualities of his concept of the chosen object of his worship. Prophet Abraham’s (pbuh) Creator was Most Good, had created everything to produce only that which is good, and he, Prophet Abraham (pbuh), saw himself as being nourished and sustained by the very same at All-Embracing and Incomparable Creator-Rabb. Thus, Prophet Abraham (pbuh) concluded that he would NEVER worship, and associate anything in his worship, as partners to the One who nourishes and sustains him (pbuh).
So, the Abrahamic Way of Life (Deen) was founded upon the reasoned presence (reason being a quality with which he was divinely gifted) of a divinely selected and decreed fitra that has the quality of being inherently ḥanēefan. According to E.W. Lane, Arabic–English Lexicon, Volumes 2, page 658, Colmn. 2,the Arabic word “Ḥanēefan” has been used and rendered to mean, “Inclining to a right state or tendancy. So, in the context of the above ’ayāt it takes meaning of inclining whatever to which that term is attached or related, towards all that is noble, righteous and good. The astounding effect then is that divinely chosen and decreed standard fitra is itself ḥanēefan, and to everything, every person and in whatever object that particular standard fitra (design, or pattern, or template or archetype or prototype or structure) was used and applied (be it the divinely chosen Way of Life, the heavens, the earth, and the make-up of Man itself) it would inevitably lead to every kind of majestic, wonderful, and good qualities. It is for that reason the entire races of JINNs and Man have been commanded to elect and follow the Way of Life (Deen) of Prophet Abraham (pbuh), who was himself ḥanēefan:
And so, set thy face steadfastly towards the Deen haneefan which is the Fitra Allāh (Allāh’s Divine design/pattern/structure) in accordance with which Fitra Allāh has made man: No change (should be made) in the work (wrought) by Allāh: That is the (ordained standard) Deen, but most among men understand not. (Sūrah Al-Rūm [Ch.30]:30)
And who is better in Deen (their way of life) than he who submits his whole self (entire being) to Allāh, is a doer of good, and follows the Deen (the Islāmic Way of Life) of Ibrāhēm (Abraham), the haneef (upright/ always inclined to nobility and what is good)? And Allāh took Abraham for Khalēlan (a special friend). (Sūrah Al-Nisā’[Ch.4: 125)
Ibrāhēm (Abraham), was indeed a model (good example / a paragon of virtue), devoutly obedient to Allāh, ḥanēefan (ever good inclined), and he was not of the mushrikēen (those who set up equals/partners to join gods to Allāh). He showed his gratitude for the favours (of Allāh), who chose him and guided him to a straight path. And We gave him good in this world, and he will be, in the Hereafter, in the rank of the righteous. And now We have revealed to you (the command) saying, ‘Follow the way of Ibrāhēm (Abraham), the ḥanēefan (the ever good inclined) and was not of the mushrikēen (those who set up equals to Him. (Sūrah Al-Naḥl [Ch.16: 120-123)
The reason for the forgoing details is to ensure that there is a clear understanding regarding the relationship between reason and the standard fitra and the latter’s high significance to Prophet Ibrāhēm’s (Abraham [pbuh]) chosen Deen (Way of Life). What is plainly discernable is that the standard fitra is:
- A design, or pattern, or template or archetype or prototype or structure;
- Capable and was much used, frequenly applied, and applied repeatedly to many objects or subjects of action;
- The first of its kind to be originated or created;
- The natural constitution of the objects or subjects of action; and
- Good inclined inherently.
With that understanding, one can properly understand why Prophet Muhammad [pbuh] used and applied the term fitrah to the circumstances identified in the following ḥadith:
Every new-born child is born in a state of conformity to the natural constitution (fitrah) with which he was created in his mother’s womb, either prosperous or unprosperous [in relation to the soul]; And if his parents are Jews, they make him a Jew, with respect to his worldly situation; [i.e. with respect to inheritance, etc.] and if Christians, they make him a Christian, with respect to that situation; and if Magians, they make him a Magian, with respect to that situation; his situation is the same as that of his parents until his tongue speaks for him; but if he dies before his attaining to the age when sexual maturity begins to show itself, he dies in a state of conformity to his preceding natural constitution, with which he was created in his mother’s womb. Lane, Ibid., p. 2416, Colmn 3.
Every person that is created in its mother’s womb has the same standard design, or pattern, or template or archetype or prototype or structure(fitra), which has just bias applied to its form and creation process. They will therefore come from the womb with that design, or pattern, or template or archetype or prototype or structure(fitra), as their natural structure and composition; obedient and submissive to the Creator’s laws and will. Thus, being taught to be anything different (to be a Jew, Christian, Hindu, Magian and anything else) has the effect of taking the individual away from its natural composition. When that loss is realized, they will then have the option of reverting back to their true nature; the one they had when they were first created in their mother’s womb.
Taking the forgoing rendering into account, what then were the inherent qualities Prophet Ibrāhēm (Abraham [pbuh]), when contemplating, recognized in the kingdoms or wonders of the heavens and the earth as the ones that will most certainly not lead to wickedness, evil and corruption, but to the enduring good. Those are the persuasive qualities that has formed the Deen Ḥanēefan, which is the Ibrāhēmic (Abrahamic) Way of Life, and the very ones that Allāh (swt) has instilled into the human constitution, and commanded him, in the abovementioned Sūrah Al-Rūm (Ch.30:30) ’ayāh NEVER to change.
As stated earlier, a detailed study of fitra (fitrah) is outside the remit of this work, so too is trying to provide an exhaustive list of the qualities that were identified as leading or causing the fitra itself, the heavens, the earth, and the subjects to be ever inclined towards nobility, goodness, righteousness, steadfast and to resolve firmly to NEVER, in observance of their worship of Allāh (swt), join ought else in any way to that worship.
Anything that does not produce an enduring good or is not inclined to good continually, is contra the Fitra Allāh. It suffices to say that among the abounding and oft-repeated qualities of the universal and timelessly applied fitra (fitrah – design, or pattern, or template or archetype or prototype or structure), with which all things are originated and caused to exist for the first time (giving them their just biased disposition), are: (i) having a Single and ODD Creator-Govenor; (ii) unflinching obedience to submission and resignation to the desire, commands, laws, and will of the Universal Creator-Govenor; (iii) the dire need for gratitude to that Creator-Nourisher and Sustainer; (iv) the presence of systems; (v) hierarchy; (vi) the presence of the system of zawj; (vii) created worlds that are justly balanced in measure, weight, and size; (viii) the presence of forms, shapes and purpose of content; (ix) the existence of preferences; and (x) the pervasiveness of order and forms that are well structured.
All the above things not having existed before, it is Allāh (swt) who originated them and has applied them to the created realms and everything that is in them, so that they compose the universal fitra (fitrah). If there is total trust and confidence, and those matters are not interfered with, and altered in any way, but allowed to obediently run their natural course in the precise manner dictated by their originating laws, the end result will inevitably be something good. Through contemplating Prophet Ibrāhēm (Abraham [pbuh]) was able to observe the existence of the cosmic fitra (fitrah), and having identified its presence resolved with firmness to choose obedience in submission and resignation (Islām) as his Deen (Way of Life); in effect, as shall be shown, he chose obedience to the Sūrah Adth-Dthāriyāt (Ch.51:56) primal directive.
All the above information is deemed necessary so that Ādam’s creation could be put into its proper context. He most certainly did not create himself so that his inherent constitution complied and accord with the pre-existing fitra (fitrah – design, or pattern, or template or archetype or prototype or structure – Sūrah Al-Rūm [Ch.30:30]). In addition, zawj has been identified as one of the qualities comprised in the fitra (fitrah), therefore, Ādam again, could never have conceptualized its need, and all the ramifications of what is involved with such a system, and originated it and the physical forms and genders that would make it practical, effective, and enduringly good. It takes the Absolute in knowledge, power and wisdom to originate, conceive, and create the cosmic fitra (fitrah – design, or pattern, or template or archetype or prototype or structure), and to apply it in the creation and in giving of life to Ādam, his opposite in gender, and the relationship that was to exist between them; an Islāmic Marriage.
- Zawj As A Means To Increase Faith (Imaan
The fact is, well before the creation of the heavens, the “earth”, and all its creatures, Allāh (swt) originated as part of his cosmic fitra (fitrah), the concept of zawj. For the avoidance of any doubt, it satisfies all the constituents in the definition of fitra (fitrah), in that, before the creation of the concomitant realms, only the ONE and ODD (swt) existed. The concept and reality of zawj never existed, until Allāh (swt) conceptualized and originated it for the first time.
Having conceptualized and originated zawj, as a part of His (swt) preliminaries, the Divine Plan was put into action. Allāh (swt) originated, created, and established the newly created concomitant seven heavens and ‘earth”, and then proliferated the template of zawj as one aspect of its fitra (fitrah), in many things and in many different ways throughout the realms:
And it is He who has spread the earth wide and placed on it firm mountains and running waters, and created thereon two sexes of every [kind of] plant; [and it is He who] causes the night to cover the day. Verily, in all this there are ‘ayāt (lessons, messages teachings signs) indeed for people who think! (Sūrah Ar-Rād [Ch.13]:3)
And one of His (Allāh [swt]),‘ayāt is that He has created for you, spouses from amongst yourselves so that you might dwell together LI-TASKUNOOand He has placed between you “mawwaddatan” “wa raḥmah”. In this there is surely evidence (of the truth) for the people who carefully think.” (Sūrah Al-Rūm [Ch.30:21])
There appears to be an extremely important divine objective behind the concept of zawj, and by extension the Islāmic Marriage. The aim was to use it as the core basis for reproductive existence, and to establish a Deen; meaning, “Way of Living” that forms the practical foundation, and which justifies the grant of the gift of time and the activities during its changing circumstances and the continuity of the living that are reproduced.
A further characteristic of the cosmic fitra (fitrah), and that of zawj, is that it is only through strict obedience, and submission to the laws governing the relationship between the pair and, where applicable, their reproduction process, can the subjects of the action produce the fruits that accord with nature, and facilitate the perpetuation of its obligations or its own kind:
The sun and the moon run courses (each their own that are fixed, precise and exactly) computed / reckoned. (Sūrah Al-Raḥmān [Ch.55: 5)
It is difficult to imagine that Prophet Ibrāhēm (Abraham [pbuh]), while contemplating the kingdoms or wonders of the heavens and the earth did not recognize the observance to obedience in the cosmic marriage between the sun and the moon, and that everything of planet Earth (human, plants, animals and insects) has enjoyed countless continual benefits from their tireless obedience and unflinching submission to the divine mathematical laws Allāh (swt) has computed, measured and decreed for their performance:
Glorify the name of thy Lord and Cherisher, the Most High, Who creates and has given order and proportion (perfects), And Who has measured (calculated and designed all needs) and granted guidance; (Sūrah Al-‘Alā [Ch.87: 1-3)
It makes no sense that humans have, for thousands of years, constantly and perpetually enjoyed the daily favours of Allāh (swt), by benefiting from the strict obedience of the sun and the moon to His (swt) structure, arrangements in ranks, laws and decrees, and yet they reject and refuse to be obedient themselves, so that they might benefit further from having trust and confidence in submitting to the desires, commands and will of Allāh (swt).
Among the human race, zawj, and thusan inherent aspect of the natural composition of the cosmic fitra (fitrah), was manifested in the form of the primal Islāmic Marriage. The expressed purpose of applying it to the human race was to provide Man the means for order, comfort, tranquility, support, being balanced, compassion and many other benefits (Sūrah Al-Rūm [Ch.30:21]). Accordingly, what has been available for humans to enjoy since ancient times, when zawj and all the other natural compositions of the cosmic fitra (fitrah) were originated and created, are the above benefits and the gain derived from the survival and perpetuation of every such entity. They are the obvious inherent and inevitable good that flows to the human race from the pure system zawj, and as a corollary the Islāmic Institution of Marriage and cosmic fitra (fitrah), all of which are innately ḥanēefan.
The following ’ayāt has made it demonstrably clear that the divinely designated Deen (meaning, the standard “Way of Life”) was specifically chosen because it is ḥanēefan, and it accords wholly with Allāh’s (swt) divinely chosen fitra, which is also ḥanēefan. That Deen was given as a tremendous favour and gift to the newly created nafs, Ādam, who was created as a mature adult, and with, according to the above “Unseen Knowledge”, a fashioned physical form and innate constitution that has the same fitra that Allāh (swt) had repeatedly used and applied to the processes in creating the realms and all that is in them:
‘O my people, surely I am clear of that which you associate with Allāh. ‘I have faced my face toward Him Who fatarasSamāawāati wal’adth ḥanēefan NEVER! Will I associate partners with Allāh.’ (Sūrah Al-An’ām [Ch.6]: 74-79)
And so, set thy face steadfastly towards the Deen haneefan which is the Fitra Allāh (Allāh’s Divine design/pattern/structure) in accordance with which Fitra Allāh has made man: No change (should be made) in the work (wrought) by Allāh: That is the (ordained standard) Deen, but most among men understand not. (Sūrah Al-Rūm [Ch.30]:30)
We have already seen from the rendering of “li-yakūuna minal- Mūuqinēen”, that it is having certainity of knowledge and understanding (yakeen), about the cosmic qualities (the fitra [fitrah]) that protects against harm and injuries. It has also been shown that these cosmic fitra qualities are identified as being ḥanēefan, and it is only by cultivating them will human beings become capable of humbling themselves, and surrender to being truly genuine in their practice of unflinching obedience. Only then will they embrace putting their trust and confidence in what Allāh (swt) has designed and decreed as the primal structure, rankings, functions and natural composition of the Islāmic Marriage.
At its inception, Ḥawwā’and Ādam’s Islāmic Marriage was not exposed to the kinds of challenges and trials humans face in these modern times. The fact is that, when Allāh (swt) created Ḥawwā’,and introduced her to Ādam as his zawj, they were both at a stage in their evolution, whereat they had only recently been taught articulate speech, intelligence and educated as to the names and natures of all the essential things. Their imaan (trust and confidence in Allāh’s (swt) superior knowledge, understanding and wisdom, and that He knew what they knew not) would therefore have been at the optimum, obliging and enabling Ādam and Ḥawwā’ to accept (as being wise and just), and to be obedient and submissive to:
- their spousal state and status, and that being Married was appropriate, necessary, good, and would advance and benefit their wellbeings;
- their marital gender composition, the divinely decreed grades in the allocation of ranks (the male being the Khalēefa, and the female [being of like nature] his zawj), and the distribution of functional responsibilities within the relationship (the Khalēefa being Allāh’s (swt) commissioned and primary Regent and his zawj Allāh’s(swt) chief exponentof the contrasting Divine attributes of Allāh(swt) in being “The ODD”, “The ONE”, andthus totally separate and apart from the system of zawj (pairs);
- the divine marital structure and seeing the allocation of the marital ranks in it and the rights, duties and obligations (expressed and implied) as well proportioned, ordered and just;
- the marital relationship as the only existing social structure known to them, the fact that it was divinely created and, as a consequence, the Islāmic Marriage being the only divine legitimate and acceptable relationship before Allāh (swt); and
- the Islāmic Marriage being divinely preferred and the arena for the manifestation of excellence in conduct and to it being a structure that benefits, nurtures and increases human development.
Because Ādam and Ḥawwā’were divinely joined they templated:
- Their sanctified union of marriage as a divinely conferred and natural tradition;
- What it means to have unqualified trust and confidence in Allāh (swt) and each other and the practical rewards of imaan; and
- The individual and collective benefits that flow from supporting each other in manifesting the cosmic fitra (fitrah) qualities through:
- (i) Firmly grasping a profound knowledge and understanding of the fundamental purpose for which they were created, specifically, liya’abudullāh (meaning, to worship, to the exclusion of all else, Allāh [swt] through their manifest obedience in submitting in servitude to His [swt] Desires, Command and Will);
- (ii) Never, because of envy and arrogance, attempt to alter the divinely preferred structure and ranking, but fully discharging, (with due exercise of their freedom of choice and will) the prescribed standards of sound and steadfast leadership, in respect of the duties and function of the principal Khalēefa, andin being a loyal and unfettered supporter and helpmate in furtherance of that office;
- (iii) Individually and collectively maintaining (as trustees-beneficiaries under the Spiritual-Legal Amaanah) their knowledge and understanding of the divine concept of “Trust”, as well as their innate fitra (fitrah) qualities (obedience, honesty, justice and trustworthiness) in character, with which they were created, in order to complete their special fiduciary duties under the Spiritual-Legal Amaanah, as well as their general trust duties as the principal Khalēefa and his helpmate; and
- (iv) Remaining sensitive to anything that is: (a) contrary to the fitra (fitrah) qualities, as well as the qualities mercy, politeness, good speech, forgiveness, kindness, affection, loyalty, trust, respect, care and concern in their respective consciousness and characters; and (b) destabilizing and decadent, and will cause disturbance to the Sakinah (order, balance, peace and tranquility) of the Islāmic Marriage.
Another critical feature of the primal Islāmic Marriage, is its pre-Earth chronology, which strongly suggest that the Islāmic Institution of Marriage, logically, came into existence after Ādam’s creation, and he had agreed to accept the benefits and bear the added weight of the responsibilities under the Spiritual Legal Amaanah (trust). The evidence from the Unseen Knowledge, contained in the Magnificent Arabic Qur’ān,plainly states and provides that the (Spiritual- Legal) Amaanah was accepted by “alinsānu” (Clarification of the terms “alinsānu” and Amaanah, will follow shortly). The allusion then is that at the time of his marriage, Ādam had not been commissioned as the Khalēefa of the “earth’ and, rightly and legally, could not have contracted in that capacity.
The Arabic word insān does not mean “human being”, rather, it is typically an Arabic Qur’ānic qualification and usage that characterises the behavioural response of Ādam to the “Primal Human Covenant”. It is derived from the verb nasiya, which means “to forget”. Because Ādam lacked a firmness of purpose and resolve (Sūrah Ṭā Hā (Ch.20:115), that was precisely what he did; Ādam exhibited the human propensity to become deflected by their vain desires, and thus weak in their will and determination to observe their obligations, in his case the “Primal Human Covenant”.
The chronological order in the arrangements of the creation period events was deliberate, and it is of high spiritual and practical significance for the guidance of Man. It demonstrates Allāh’s (swt) Divine intention for the Spiritual Legal Amaanah (Trust covenant) to operate as a continuing obligation; one that runs with Ādam as the progenitor of alinsānu. It was not an agreement that was made to bind, solely and specifically, that single primal nafs in his personal capacity; becoming a fiduciary trustee-beneficiary of the Amaanah was thus a hereditary position.
Accordingly, Ḥawwā’, a subsequent independent female insān, who was created post Amaanah (trust) out of the principal insān, became logically bound by its terms. The Amaanah was dealt with in Book 1, and basically it is a Spiritual- Legal Trust that affects absolutely everything a person does in relation to Allāh (swt) and the components of the Trust Property (the “earth” and all therein). It compels, upon pain and punishment, the insān to be purposeful and resolute as regards the innate compostion they came into existence with, namely, the fitra (fitrah) qualities of unbending loyalty, honesty, trustworthiness, truthfulness and the doing of justice as regards all their actions.
As a result, to live a successful Islāmic married life (the Islāmic Marriage being a corollary of the creation of Ḥawwā’) the primal couple (and every future single or Islāmic married couple) were compelled to observe, complete and fulfill the Spiritual-Legal terms and conditions of the Amaanah (Trust) agreement. Humans are compelled to ensure that the net effect of all their thinking, behaviour and conduct prove they have unfettered trust and confidence, and that they are obedient to the prime directive in being submissive to Allāh’s (swt) express and implied desires, commands and will, comprised in the trust and conditions.
So then, the major matter comprised in the Islāmic Marriage are its structure, the order and rank in which the male and female are placed, the acceptance of the femaleas a zawj (helpmate/wife) on a trust; the obligation of the zawj (helpmate/wife) to be trustworthy and honest as regards herself, and her husband’s property, including the children she mothers; the obligation of the principal Khalēefa to stand up for justice in protecting the dignity and physical person of the zawj (helpmate/wife), including not treating her harshly; the responsibility on both the spouses to cultivate the fitra (fitrah) qualities (including mawwaddatan and Raḥmah), and to always uphold and conduct themselves according those nobile standards, and to never deviate from them in managing the “earth” and sustaining the relationship and the Islāmic Marriage.
Evidently fidelity is the golden thread knitting them all together. How and the degree to which that mechanism (with its knowledge of trust, trustworthiness, truthfulness, and being just) is applied and manifested within the Islāmic Marriage structure will greatly influence the way in which every person is caused to: (i) become compliant with Man’s divinely ordained, and fundamental, purpose of liya’abudullāh;(ii) fulfil the terms under the Spiritual Legal Amaanah; and (iii) be dutiful, obedient and submissive to the Desires, Will, and Commands of Allāh (swt), while exercising functions as the principal and assistant Khalēefa of the “earth”.
- Zawj As A Means Of Polarization and Deen
Muhammad Asad in his work, the“Message of the Qur’ān”, page 100, footnote 1, explained that, depending on the context, the Arabic word zawj denotes:
Either “a pair” or “one of a pair”. Whenever the dual form zawjan is followed by the additional numerical definition ithnan (“two”), it invariably signifies “a pair comprising both sexes.
The above rendering, and use of the term zawj, takes on the most serious of practical and religious importance because it is a word that it is absolutely inappropriate to Allāh (swt), and does not relate to Him (swt) in any way, shape, or form.
Allāh (swt) is the Originator-Creator and Eternal Source of the design and system of zawj (and by extension the Islāmic Institution of Marriage), and the Entity that has applied it to all things forming the cosmic reality, so that they come into existence in a state that fixes and attaches them to the system of zawj. As mentioned earlier, the Islāmic Marriage is the peculiar and divinely chosen structure in which that concept and the state of being zawj is applied to the human race. Allāh (swt), the Absolute in Knowledge and Wisdom, originated and created humans a pair that is of like nature, but the opposite gender (khalaqnakum azwajan).
In having this qualitative aspect of the universal pattern/design/structure (fitra), and sharing it in common with the created matters, humans are endowed with an innate nature that enables and inclines them to the ultimate good; this being their unswerving and unflinching obedience to a system of conducts that illuminates and distinguishes Allāh (swt) as Absolutely Unique and The Incomparable, and facilitates genuine acknowledgement and the expression of gratitude to Him (swt).
While benefiting the human race in the manner stated in the preceding subsection, Allāh (swt) has also employed the concept and presence of zawj, and by implication the Islāmic Institution of Marriage, as a critical part of the edifice, and one of the greatest proof, not only of His (swt) existence, but which proves and establishes Allāh’s (swt) Oddness and Uniqueness, and justify Him being worshipped to the exclusion of all else.
By fixing the origin and continuity of every living entity to “Even” or “Zawj”, and by making zawj a highly pervasive qualitative feature of the universal fitra (fitrah), Allāh (swt) brought about the necessary polarization with Himself as The Truly Odd, The Utterly Unique, and The Pre-existing Eternal Source of all things. As a result, to be a trustworthy, true, just and a devout worshipper of Allāh (swt), one must not only understand, but conceptually and demonstratively depict Him (swt) as not having: (i) a pair at all, in the sense of another like Him (swt); (ii) the equal of Allāh (swt), in sense of the opposite in kind in gender or force (a wife/helpmate); and (iii) offsprings – He (swt) most certainly does not beget, nor is He (swt) begotten:
Say: He is Allāh, the One and Only; Allāh, the Eternal, Absolute, He begetteth not, nor is He begotten; And there is none like unto Him. (Sūrah Al-Ikhlas [Ch.112]:1-4)
Limitless in His glory is He who has created pairs in whatever the earth produces, and in men’s own selves, and in that of which [as yet] they have no knowledge. (Sūrah Yā Sīn [Ch.36]:36)
By reason of that polarity, the concept and universal existence of “Even” or “Zawj” is given an extremely high position, and rank, among the most solemn body of divine portent, which evidences and proves that Allāh (swt) alone is worthy of being worshipped. He (swt) is thus able to swear by that inexorable universal truth and ‘ayāh He (swt) is indeed the Originator, Creator and Rabb of all the worlds:
Consider the EVEN and the ODD (One)! Consider the night as it runs its course! Considering all this – could there be, to anyone endowed with reason, a [more] solemn evidence of the truth? (Sūrah Al-Fajr’ (Ch.89]: 10-11)
Consequently, the reason for the presence in the realms of this vital polarity, is to guide and to teach. Knowing that Allāh (swt) is Originator and Creator (swt) of zawj, the invaluable lesson being taught is that even if the good in continuity of their own kind was the only benefit, that immeasurable good is still more than sufficient cause for the beneficiary-worshippers, including Man, to put their trust and confidence (faith or belief or imaan) in Allāh (swt), as their Benefactor. It is to be noted and underscored that there are countless benfits to be derived from the concept, existence and state of zawj, as well as in the living and continuity in the life of the fruits that are the results of zawj.
The good and the benefit that is most valuable in the concept, existence and state of zawj, even when compared with the benefit of bringing another of one’s own kind into existence at rest, or in motion, is its function in enabling species to distinguish Allāh (swt), as their Rabb and the only entity that is worthy of being worshipped.
Accordingly, the most priceless and illuminating facet of zawj as an original archetype that is manifestly good inclined, and has been applied to countless things, is that by its own make up, zawj, clearly identifies Allāh (swt) as the Rabb to whom every inanimate and living creatures (without any exceptions) owes a debt of gratitude; the universal fitra (fitrah) object of worship is the Most Gracious Allāh (swt), hence the need for the following irreplaceable reminder of the cosmic ranking in valuables:
Ar-Raḥmān (The Most Intensely Gracious) (It is He) Who has taught the Qur’ān, Created Insāan (created the forgetful [Man]), taught him (Man) Al-bayān (articulate speech and intelligence). The sun and the moon run their courses according to a fixed reckoning. And the Najm (stars and or herbs) and the trees Sajdah (prostrate/ humbly submit adoringly to His will). And the heaven He has raised high and set up a measure. (Sūrah A(l)r-Raḥmān – (Ch.55]: 1-7)
What is expounded in the above ‘ayāt (lesson, teachings, sign, miracle, evidence, and directive) are the matters that are inherently most precious to the the human race, and the position in rank, in order of value, that they hold. Plainly, the most unquantifiable in value is Allāh (swt), since He (swt) carries the Divine Attribute A(l)r-Raḥmān, the Rabb of all the worlds. It is therefore Allāh (swt) that the presence of the system of zawj, as a facet of the universal fitra (fitrah), has distinguished, and pointed to, as worthy of worship to the exclusion of all else.
That being so, the foregoing provides the rationale and also confirms the ḥadith quoted earlierfrom the holy Prophet, Muhammad [pbuh]. “Every new-born child” is the product of the system of zawj,and since that very system identifies A(l)r-Raḥmān, the Rabb of all the worlds, as the only entity worthy of worship, to the exclusion of all else, it follows that, every person, when newly born “is born in a state of conformity to”(the Divine natural Laws governing the system of zawj, which is) the fitrah (natural constitution) with which he was created in his mother’s womb”; the Divine natural Laws governing the system of zawj, is the same fitra (fitrah) in accordance with which Allāh (swt) has created the entire human race, the heavens and the earth. Thus, the natural and inherent calling all that is in those matters and everything that is comprised in them, is the obligation to render worship (with trust, confidence, unflinching obedience and unfettered submission) to Allāh (swt).
Another significant feature of the Sūrah A(l)r-Raḥmān (Ch.55: 1-7) ‘ayāt is the high ranking in value given to the creation of Man; His origination and creation ranks third in the A(l)r-Raḥmān order. As already explained, his creation was part of a complex divine scheme, which maps out liya’abudullāh as Man’s divinely ordained fundamental purpose and prime directive. What is implicit from that Sūrah Adth-Dthāriyāt (Ch.51:56), divine guidance and prime directive is that Man would be given a divinely determined period to establish his chosen way of life, but that the Way of Life chosen for him by his Creator is the Deen that helps him to remain an ’abudullāh, and that Deen is Islām
The term Deen is highly significant because it comes from the Arabic root Dana, which means “He is indebted”. It was chosen for its character in appropriately reflecting the truth that every individual person owes a debt of gratitude to Allāh (swt), for which they are obliged to use their knowledge, intelligence, and the preferences given to them, to establish standards of decency, rightness and justice, and to aid in acquiring certainty of knowledge and understanding (yakeen) about the cosmic qualities (the fitra [fitrah]), which protects against harm and injuries. It also comprises the divine endowment of the freedom of choice, and the power to will the necessary actions, which assist in cultivating the cosmic fitra qualities to humble human beings, and triggering them to acknowledge and demonstrably manifest their truly genuine surrender to the practice of unflinching obedience.
High on that countless list things for which gratitude from Man is due are: firstly, his creation as a single nafs that is one half of the pair (zawj) and then out of that its other half to complete the pair (zawj), and then with that pair (zawj) a reproductive system is established to richly generate its own kind. Second, attaching Man to the system of zawj and part of the universal fitra (fitrah). Third, creating system of zawj as an inherently good-inclined system; Fourth, giving the system of zawj an intrinsic quality which causes it to distinguish from itself the entity (Allāh swt) that is worthy of worship to the exclusion of all else; and finally, fixing zawj with the exclusive character of being the only ancient original reproductive system through which the human race is caused to exist.
It is precisely because the system of zawj is an important aspect of the universal fitra (fitrah), why primal and ancient marriage was by Allāh’s (swt) Divine Decree. It was a sanctity and not by agreement or contract between the parties, because it, evidently, was intended to be a well established and unqualified Islāmic tradition for all subsequent human beings. The practical purpose behind this tradition was, that every person by: (i) participating in getting married according to the ancient rites and laws of Islām; (ii)acquiring pure knowledge in the course of following the Islāmic Deen; (iii) demonstrating sound reasoning and intelligence while pondering the wonders of creation; and (iv) adhering to Sūrah Adth-Dthāriyāt (Ch.51:56) prime directive in being obedient, truthful, trustworthy and just to those realities, would then be able to identify, confirm, and acknowledge the irrefutable evidence of the Oddness and Uniqueness of Allāh ([swt] the real source and cause of their origin), and that is wholly distinguishable from the evident presence of the system of zawj, to which their existence is intricately connected and dependant.
Humans, without any exception, are therefore expected to engage in entering into the Islāmic Marriage so that, by their conduct and state, they themselves would acknowledge, and become manifest living proof of Allāh’s (swt) Oddness and Uniqueness. However, notwithstanding the fact that the system of zawj is an important aspect of the universal fitra (fitrah), and despite all the foregoing benefits and good to which the system of zawj, (inclusive of the Islāmic Marriage)leads for the human race, to sternly guide and direct them to so conduct themselves, the Islāmic tradition of getting espoused was not elevated to the rank of being compulsory.
Non-compliance with the pre-planet Earth Islāmic Marriage tradition was not made punishable under physical pain, financial penalty and or imprisonment. Instead, all that Allāh (swt) did was that He (swt) made the first human Islāmic Marriage an established, very clear, and complete precedent. But while there would NOT be any immediate and specific physical punishment for humans who do not marry, there would be immediate unseen harm and the long term social, national, psychological, emotional and ultimate physical consequencies. Consequently, there are unequivocal and stern divine guidance and injunctions, which invite the Muslims to marry other Muslims of the opposite gender:
And among His ‘ayāt (lessons, teachings, signs, miracles, evidences, and directives) is this, that He created min anfusikum azwajan (created for you pairs/wives/mates from among yourselves [own kind]), that lakum litaskunoo (ye may dwell in tranquillity with them), and He has put between yourselves mawaddatan waraḥmatan: verily in that are ‘ayāt (lessons, teachings, signs, miracles, evidences, and directives) for those who reflect. (Sūrah Al-Rūm [Ch.30]: 21)
Marry women of your choice, two or three or four; but if you fear that you will not be able to deal justly (with them), then only one…That will be more suitable to prevent you from doing injustice. (Sūrah Al-Nisā’ [Ch.4]: 3)
Do not marry unbelieving women until they believe: a slave woman who believes is better than an unbelieving woman even though she (the latter) allures you. Nor marry (your girls) to unbelievers until they believe: …Unbelievers do but beckon you to the Hell fire. But Allāh beckons by His grace to Al-Jannat (the Garden (of Bliss/ Paradise) and forgiveness, and makes His ‘ayāt (lessons, teachings, signs, miracles, evidences, and directives) clear to the human race: that they may receive admonition. (Sūrah Al-Baqarah [Ch.2]: 221)
The evident rationale and wisdom behind this move was to illuminate the meritorious characteristic of the divinely chosen Deen, and why subsequent Islāmic Marriages would be required to be with free and uncoerced consent, and by way of a contractual agreement. Like Jannat (the Gardens of Paradise), the Islāmic Marriage is the supreme good that humans are required to appreciate and be ready and willing to exercise their freedom of choice, and power to will actions, to attain.
So, with the aid of the grace and mercy of the Creator, only a specific group of people will merit and be permitted enjoy, throughout their Islāmic married life on planet Earth, a state of “Sakinah” (see post) and, in all probability, be allowed to enter Jannat, and the fraternity of the truthful, trustworthy, just and righteous, to reside therein as their permanent abode. They are the ones who would have used their knowledge, intelligence, and all the other divinely endowed faculties, to freely and willingly enter into an Islāmic Marriage and, throughout the state of their Islāmic married life, would distinguish themselves by confessing and knowingly becoming a part of the manifest living proof of Allāh’s (swt) Oddness and Uniqueness.
- The Decreed Original Position Of Spouses
Another important facet of the original the Islāmic Marriage is how the spouses are naturally defined in the relationship to each other. Ādam is one part of the pair (zawj) of the primal human beings, and the first half, within the Divine Plan, to be created by Allāh (swt) as a lone nafs (ego, self, person). Although the JINN race was created before the intended Khalēefa, they clearly had absolutely no part to play in the: (i) moulding of his form (Iblis’ consciousness, character and conduct shows he would have done things differently); (ii) perfecting and giving of life to Ādam (they evidently saw him for the first time on the occasion of the second gathering of the entire JINN race); and (iii) him being taught speech, how to reason and being given knowledge (as evidence by the fact that all the addressees, at the second gathering, acknowledged that they knew nothing of the things Ādam had been educated about).
Another obvious reality is that, although the concept of pair (zawj), in the form of the Islāmic Marriage, was introduced and became fully applied to the human race with the creation Ḥawwā’, her position is merely that of the first female human being, who was not in existence at the time of the creation of Ādam (the male). As a result, the conscious and subconscious belief held by many women that they somehow own the man to who they are married is debunked on the basis that first female human being (and every other woman) has no claim in ownership over her male spouse.
What is therefore plain, on basis of the Unseen Divine Evidence, is that the legal and equitable ownership of Ādam’s fitra (fitrah) which is the same for the universal), his creation process, the physical form and the ruḥ (the life force) of that intended Khalēefa, and every subsequent male human being, are the properties of Allāh (swt) solely. It is unjust, wickedness and a withholding of the right belonging to Allāh (swt) for any human being, male or female, to boldly say, believe, consciously or unconsciously think, or conduct themselves in anyway that suggests that they own another human being.
Within the context of every Islāmic Marriage, any express or implied act by the female, whether mental, emotional, or physical, amounting to the taking or attempted taking or exercise of ownership, possession and control over the male spouse, and the seed he has planted in her womb, on trust, for nurturing, is a breach of the express and implied terms of the Islāmic Marriage and the general Spiritual-Legal Amaanah (trust) – it is a withholding of property rights lawfully due to Allāh (swt), a falsehood, disobedience, and an injustice (basically a sin). One would go as far as to say that to even jokingly entertain that thought, is the unwitting introduction of the seed of Kufr (doubts as regards the Absolute Power, Knowledge, Wisdom, All-Sustaining and Nurturing attributes (Rubbubiah), and rights of ownership of the Universal Owner), as it a subtle subrogation of the position of Allāh (swt) and, although forgiveable, it has no place in a righteous temple:
To Allāh belongeth all that is in the heavens and on earth. Whether ye show what is in your minds or conceal it, Allāh Calleth you to account for it. He forgiveth whom He pleaseth, and punisheth whom He pleaseth, for Allāh hath power over all things. (Sūrah Al-Baqarah [Ch.2]: 221)
For the avoidance of any doubt, the position of Ḥawwā’ is somewhat similar. The evidence from the Unseen Knowledge is that this second human being, and every other subsequent female, is the creation of Allāh (swt), and thus His property and ward. As was mentioned earlier, the fact that she was created from the single human nafs, representing the first male Khalēefa, and made a female so as to be the other half of the pair (zawj) of the first human beings, and thus bringing them within the cosmic system of zawj, is among the greatest portents.
One cannot help observing the fitra (fitrah) quality in Ādam being a single nafs and the symbolism in that ‘ayāh with him being the source from which all other humans, by the grace mercy and power of Allāh (swt), have emanated. The position of Allāh (swt) is likewise. The irrefutable truth and reality is that each person have not created themselves, the entity in which they are kept safe and nurtured, the surroundings into which they are brought, and knowledge they meet upon acquiring existence. As the above Glorious Arabic Qur’ānic ‘ayāh has clearly stated, the originating source and true owner of the fitra (fitrah) in all things, and the objects themselves, is Allāh (swt), since He alone possesses the qualities of Al-Watr (“the ODD”), Al-Aḥad (“The One”) and Aṣ-Ṣamad (“The Source” of the entire cosmic knowledge, wisdom and power).
Being created by Allāh (swt), and derived from that single primal human nafs, while it was oblivious to the creation of its other half, had the effect of conferring on Ḥawwā’ a similar nature as her material racial source. Further Ḥawwā’, like Ādam, fell within the sole and absolute legal and equitable ownership of Allāh (swt) because, notwithstanding that primal human nafs being the source of the substance with which she was created, it did not otherwise actively participate in the creation process of Ḥawwā’, nor did it acquire, by any means and for any reasons, any legal or equitable interest in the least aspect of the person of Ḥawwā’.
Many men and women misunderstand and have misconceptions regarding the issue of possession in relation to their spouses; there are women who hold the belief that husbands are their private possession, and no other women is permitted to become a part of his life. Then there are men who, for whatever reasons, believe they own the women to whom they are married, and can treat them however they like. Either gender will at any time consider taking their spouse’s life, in warped belief it will make the deceased spouse their personal property eternally. It is to do away with that level of arrogance and incomprehensible ignorance, and to reaffirm the continuing truth and reality of Allāh’s (swt) superior legal and equitable property rights, and ownership over what he has originated and created, that we have the following Glorious Arabic Qur’ānic statement:
And remain conscious and fearful of Allāh by whose authority, and in whose name, you (spouses) derive your rights from one another” (Sūrah Al-Nisā’ [Ch.4]:1)
This serves as a very grave Divine Warning to those who are miserly and dare to suppress and withhold their acknowledgement of Allāh’s (swt) legal and equitable ownership over all things, and that every enjoyment they derive from their spouse, is a product of the mutual rights that Allāh (swt), out of mercy and kindness, have divinely granted to them.
Accordingly, the origin of the rights and obligations within the Islāmic Marriage stems from the absolute right and discretion of Allāh (swt) to will and consent to His property and ward, Ḥawwā’, marrying Ādam, and on what terms and for what purpose. In that ancient template, it was Allāh (swt) who chose to give Ḥawwā,’ Ādam upon a trust, and decreed and compelled her, and every female belonging to Him (swt), to perform that task of a wife/helpmate, subject to the mutual marital rights He (swt), divinely decreed was to exist between them. What also the above passage was alluding to is that, any harshness, abuse and injustice to women, and any breach by the women in trying or actually altering the divinely ordained marital family structure, or withholding the rights that are lawfully due to the male (as their spouse and the Khalēefa), will have to be accounted for to Allāh (swt), who is ‘alaykum raqēeba (meaning “ever watchful over you [the spouses])”.
It is important to note that at the time of the primal marriage Ādam owned nothing, was not yet the commissioned Khalēefa, (whereby he could exercise his rights as a trustee to sustain himself and family from the Trust Property) and had not yet been given permission to reside and enjoy the benefits of Jannat (Paradise). The suggestion here is that, firstly, it is not a precondition to getting married in Islām that a person must be in full or part time employment. Secondly, it is not a requirement that the male should be a wealthy person; it is beneficial to be a man of means, but the lack of it does not operate as a precluding element. The third and last allusion from the circumstances is that, the period immediately after the primal marriage might have been one of Sauwm (total control and restraint). Plainly, the level of Sauwm was reduced after the inauguration, when they were authorized to enter the Garden of Bliss (Jannat), and given permission to eat, save for the metaphorical “Tree”, of the things that were there in abundance.
- The Decreed State For The Zawj
A characteristic that must not be omitted from the body of primal features is that of the primary benefit in originating the system of zawj. By now it should be manifestly evident that zawj is not just the existence of two things that are the opposite of each other, but also between whom, despite differences, there is unity borne out of an operational connection that produces a cohesive state and a harmonious relationship. Consequently, a state of harmony, tranquility, and stability, is the principal benefit and aim of the relationships established by the decreed and original natural system zawj and, as a corollary, the original Islāmic marital relationship between Ādam and Ḥawwā’.
Earlier, the principal universal template of zawj, with its similitude of the Islāmic Marriage and intense state of harmony, tranquility, and stability was cited. By way of a reminder, the Glorious Arabic Qur’ān explains:
It is not permitted for the sun to overtake the moon, nor can the night outstrip the day. Each of them (just) floats along (its own rounded) orbit (according to law). (Sūrah Yā Sīn [Ch.36]:40)
The sun and the moon run courses (each their own that are fixed, precise and exactly) computed / reckoned. (Sūrah Al-Raḥmān [Ch.55: 5)
The ‘ayāh that is being illuminated in those passages is the cosmic zawj, and marital relationship, in the guise of the sun and the moon. The sun and the moon is, in similitude, and by divine decree, a married couple; a pair (zawj) of light-giving sources; the sun being the male spouse and the moon, the female spouse). Each is a separate person with their own identity (called, Sun and Moon) and lives (symbolized by each following their own orbit, exactly as computed). A further important similitude and example, one which contributes greatly to their state of harmony, tranquility, and stability, is that neither is allowed to interfere with their divinely decreed structure. Further ‘ayāt goes on to say:
Blessed is He (Allāh swt), Who made constellations (groups of stars) in the skies (heavens), and placed therein a Lamp and a moon giving light. (Sūrah Al-Furqān [Ch.25]:61)
It is He (Allāh swt) Who made the sun to be a shining light and the moon to be a light (reflected), and measured out stages for her; that ye might know the number of years and the count (of time). Nowise did Allāhcreate this but in truth and righteousness. (Thus) doth He explain His Signs in detail, for those with insight (knowledge and understand). (Sūrah Yūnus [Ch.10]:5)
It is not by chance that the lower of the heavens has its features. Its manifest contents, composition, structure, and innate qualities were knowingly and deliberately given to it by Allāh (swt) and they were designed to form the common ḥanēefan fitra (fitrah), with which everything accords. As a result, it is not the sun that is laying any claims to all that is masculine, nor does its origin, and innate nature, have anything to do with misogynism. Rather, it is Allāh (swt), the Originator and Owner of the heavens and the “earth”, and all that is within, that has willed the existence of the sun and moon, and ordained, as a cosmic sanctity, the relationship between them; their connection was never by choice and agreement.
Additionally, Allāh (swt) exercised His (swt) absolute discretion to prefer the sun (the metaphorical male) to be the source of radiant light and heat, and the moon (the metaphorical female) to be the sun’s helpmate; her decreed function was to assist in the discharge of the sun’s primary function in facilitating the reckoning of time. So, it is for the sun, while manifesting precise and unflinching obedience to the will and commands of to Allāh (swt), to determing the seconds, minutes and hours from the start, of the day to the end. The moon on the other hand, while being similarly precise and obedient to her orbit and the stages measured out to be her natural cycle, assists the sun by reflecting its light and thereby facilitates the count of the months, the passing and number of years and the count (of time).
Note that, in the same way that the human spouses to derive their mutual rights from Allāh (swt), here too it is Allāh (swt) that has determined the duties, rights responsibilities in the marital relationship between the sun and moon. The illustrious example they set is that, despite being individuals with their own identity, function and responsibilities, they are able to function daily, and for thousands of years through each successive state, in a state of harmony, tranquility, and stability. The reason for that success is even more instructive, it rests solely upon their individual and collective unfettered acceptance of Allāh (swt) as their Govenor, Cherisher and Sustainer, and their unfettered, precise and unflinching obedience in submission to His desires, commands and cosmic laws. If it is that the knowledge of the core objective of the Islāmic Marriage was not known or had become forgotten or was never fully appreciated, the following ‘ayāh leaves no doubt and to how pure, intense and beautiful that state can be:
Blessed be He in Whose hands is Dominion; and He over all things hath Power; He Who created Death and Life, that He may try which of you is best in deed: and He is the Exalted in Might, Oft-Forgiving; (Blessed be) He Who created the seven heavens (in full harmony) one above another: No want of proportion wilt thou see in the Creation of (Allāh) Most Gracious. So, turn thy vision again: seest thou any flaw? Again, turn thy vision a second time: (thy) vision will come back to thee dazzled, dull and discomfited, in a state worn out. (Sūrah Al-Mulk [Ch.67]:1-4)
It is not for the want of just writing tomes that what has preceded was expounded, on the contrary, it is for the purposes of trying to make it absolutely clear that the state and condition that exists between the cosmic metaphorical husband and wife (the sun and the moon), is similar to that which has been set as the purpose behind originating and instituting the Islāmic Marriagebetween Ādam and Ḥawwā’. It therefore makes every bit of sense that the Children of Ādam should ponder briefly the above Sūrah Al-Mulk (Ch.67:1-4) narrative, in order to fully understand and appreciate, what is the divine truth and purpose regarding the Islāmic Marriagethat was divinely willed for Ādam and Ḥawwā’.
The divine prediction in the above ‘ayāh is that, just gazing at the lower heaven will leave humans with a state wherein they become overwhelmed, bedazzled, dismal, and suffering fatigue. Some of the obvious things that contributes to that state are the infinite and irresistible power that upholds the lower and all the heavens; the vastness of the subtlety in the serenity of the lower heaven; the scale of its order; the overwhelming intensity of its evolving beauty; the cohesion within itself and with the other heavens; the uniquely original and beneficially inclined essence in its design; the optimum effectiveness of it as a comprehensive cosmic system; the incalculable and infinite efficiency which testifies to the perfection of its structure; its evident, immovable and inescapable stability; and the immeasurable, unceasing benefit and goodness that is derived by a vast array of creatures. What then comes across from that divine knowledge is that, when focusing on the the lower heaven, human beings do not have the degree of mental energy to remain excited and inspired, sustain the level of consciousness to intellectually grasp its many facets, nor the emotional and physical strength to keep focusing, not suffer exhaustion, and remain perceptive, composed and in control. As a result, humans are not expected, nor could they be required to manifest in their lives, in the absence of immediate and actual direct divine dominance in this realm of Ad-Dunyaa, the same state that is in the lower heaven and reach the same level of intensity in all the aspects of marital relationships.
One must not lose sight of the fact that the prevailing heavenly state is what it is because the heavens were subjected to actual immediate and direct divine dominance. Discretion, choice and a limited freedom of will, goes hand in hand with having absolute ownership or responsibility under a trust (Amaanah, see Sūrah Al-’Aḥzāb [Ch. 33: 72]), and during the creation epoch, not having ownership, the heavens were among the group to whom discretion under the Amaanah was offered, but they wisely refused.
Consequently, all the affairs of the heavens are governed strictly by laws that are infused with the Divine Will of the All-Powerful Allāh (swt), reinforced by the universal fitra (fitrah), and under Allāh’s (swt) direct immediate total dominance and control; hence they exhibit no “flaws”, “want of proportion”, or the slightest measure of confusion and disorder. If every Islāmic Marriage among the Children of Ādam were to take its colour from the state that has existed in the lower heaven, since its origin, then they too would have to be precise in their compliance regarding the commands of Allāh (swt), as well demonstrate unwavering obedience in unconditionally surrendering to Allāh’s (swt) vastly superior knowledge and wisdom.
When that cosmic married template is translated on practical plane for humans to emulate the picture drawn is that of a natural man and woman, both of whom are Muslims who have freely consented to be contractually joined together in an Islāmic Marriage arrangement. Within that divinely established Islāmic structure, both spouses, the male and female, are acutely aware of their respective duties, here on planet Earth, and each knowing and fulfilling their obligations exactly the way they are required to do by Allāh (swt). Their joint enterprise and purpose is “liya’abudullāh”, and the male is charged with the responsibility of being a Khalēefa, that is wholly, steadfastly and unwaveringly obedient, and who submits to following and fulfilling every command and will of Allāh (swt) flawlessly and with absolute precision. He is the first to show gratitude, not withhold not even as much as the atom’s weight of a mustard seed of the rights due to Allāh (swt), would never join the least partner, in his worship, with Allāh (swt) – the Originator, and will continually and unconditionally sacrifice his every desire to resolutely obey Allāh’s (swt) laws and commandments.
As regards his spouse, the Khalēefa will have every respect for her individuality and that he does not own her, but has received her on a trust to assist him in his duties as Khalēefa of the “earth”. He is sensitive of his obligations in protecting his zawjat; preserving her dignity, standing up to ensure she receives justice from himself and all others, supporting her out of his means, and treating her with kindness, mercy, politeness, affection, friendship and gentleness.
In the management of all other affairs, the Khalēefa of the “earth” is foremost in obedience and submission to Allāh (swt), and by extension those with the authority of governance over him; he is wholly trustworthy and will never usurp the ownership and property rights of Allāh (swt); keeps within the limits set by Allāh (swt); truthful even against himself and those that are very close to him; maintains order and will not change or seek to change in the slightest, the systems, ranks and the structures established by the Creator; honor the contractual rights of others and the needs and rights of the poor, old, young, women generally, and the vulnerable; and as a judge he dispenses justice, void of his own vanities and any unreasonable or excess emotions.
The zawjat of the Khalēefa of the “earth” is resolute, intensely mindful, and extremely strict about her devotion and commitment to manifest being obedient to Allāh (swt) by being sensitively dutiful and uncompromisingly supporting to her Khalēefa-spouse in all the above matters, which is not intended to be an exhaustive list of his responsibilities. She is moreover ever mindful of her responsibility to represent Allāh (swt) and her husband by she herself maintaining and and preserving her dignity and self respect by her speech, manner of dress and conduct, when he is present and absent. Within the Islāmic Marriages, the female spouses, regardless of how superior she is in intellect and wealth to her the Khalēefa-husband, are utterly respectful and trustworthy, and will also never seek to change or alter in the least the systems, ranks, and the structures established by the Creator.
She, the zawjat of the Khalēefa of the “earth”, has every regard for husband’s trusteeship and and authority over her, and the dire seriousness of his accountability to Allāh (swt) regarding her, and so will never say, do or put herself in a position whereby she eclipses his authority and position as Khalēefa of the “earth”, nor say or conduct herself in any manner that will incite wrong doing by the Khalēefa of the “earth”. She will discern with precision the ambits of her authority and ownership, and would never abuse the trust Allāh (swt) and her husband have placed in her in nurturing and mothering the children that are reproductively created by Allāh (swt), and placed under the authority and management of the Khalēefa, with her as his assistant and committed helper; she will never claim ownership over the husband himself, his property and things (including the children and herself) for which he has authority and accountability; she too is a mere trustee and will be called to account for any abuse, fraud, and dishonesty. The foregoing is again not an exhaustive list, but hopefully will capture the practical Earthly similitude of an Islāmic Marriage wherein the parties have no freedom of choice, discretion and power to will and, instead, are under the actual, direct, immediate and absolute dominance, will and power of Allāh (swt).
But, having the chance of having that cosmic form of immediate and direct divine involvement, and standard of intense state of harmony, tranquility, and stability is no longer possible. That is because Man was foolish in their acceptance of the Amaanah(Sūrah Al-’Aḥzāb [Ch. 33: 72]), with the result that the responsibility for the state and condition of his Islāmic Marriages are, in general, left up to him. Exceptional, are the people who are extremely truthful, firm and strong in their trust and confidence (imaan) in adhereing to the universal fitra (fitrah). They not only have the benefit of the “Divine Guidance” (Revelations such as the Glorious Arabic Qur’ān), but Allāh (swt) assists them by enabling them to meet and marry a devout Muslima (a believing woman who is sincere, obedient and submissive to Allāh [swt] and her husband).
Regardless of whether or not the Children of Ādam are assisted by Allāh (swt) with a devout Muslima, it is still the responsibility of the individual spouses to follow the “Divine Guidance”, which captures the same fitra (fitrah) qualities that Prophet Ibrāhēm(Abraham pbuh) observed (Sūrah Al-An’ām [Ch.6]: 74-79), when he pondered the cosmic lesson, teachings, sign, miracle, evidence, and directive (‘ayāh), and apply them to their Islāmic Marriages.
Allāh (swt) knew that in giving Man discretion and the limited but unfettered freedom in the power to will, he would be faced with a formidable task in not making any changes to the fitra (fitrah) of Allāh’s (swt), established Islāmic institution of Marriage. To guide and assist him in meeting the future challenges, Allāh (swt) manifested His Divine Kindness and Mercy upon Man by giving to him the best in faculties to be successful in his inevitable natural and contractual relationships, and to discharge the obligations in all the various capacities in which he would function in them:
We have indeed created man in the best of moulds (stature, conformation), Then do We abase him (to be) the lowest of the low, Except, allatheena ‘amanoo (those who believe, fulfil their trust and have confidence) and do righteous deeds: For they shall have a reward unfailing. (Sūrah Alt-Tēen [Ch.95]:4-6)
The Unseen Knowledge and information that is being conveyed here is that the primal humans had the optimum in positive mental, physical, spiritual and emotional attributes, necessary for them to function as proper Islāmic spouses. But those by themselves was not sufficient for human spouses to mirror the cosmic marital template. So, to illuminate what else would be necessary, beside merely having an optimum bio-physical stature, the primal couple, Ādam and Ḥawwā’, were gifted and equipped, in their consciousness and character, with the additional actived qualities of mawaddatan waraḥmatan. It was therefore by way of further guidance and a reminder that the following Divine statement was issued:
And among His Signs is this, that He created min anfusikum azwajan (for you pairs/wives/mates from among yourselves [own kind]), that lakum litaskunoo (ye may dwell in order, stability and tranquillity with them), and ( to sustain and maintain that state) He engenders between yourselves mawaddatan waraḥmatan: verily in that are ‘ayāt (lessons, teachings, signs, miracles, evidences, and directives) for those who reflect. (Sūrah Al-Rūm [Ch.30]: 21)
It suffices to say that “mawwaddatan” has been rendered as “pleasantness, warmth, dignity, cordiality, protection, friendliness, unselfish affection, happiness, and politeness”,while the term “raḥmah” is a reference to“mercy, compassion, kindness, affection”.
The above ayāh has expressly stated as the sole purpose of instituting zawj among human beings (in the form of the Islāmic Marriage), is li-taskunoo. The ‘li at the beginning this latter term is the laam of intent or reason. Therefore, the intention or reason behind creating the first female among the human species (not from animals or the JINN race) was to:
- Complete that primal zawj (pair);
- Bringing the race within the system of “Even”;
- Establish the Islāmic System Marriage and relationship wherein the zawj (pair) would li-taskunoo;
- Reproduce from that initial zawj (pair) countless other male and female (Sūrah Aln-Nisā’ [Ch.4]: 1), so that all the males would be able to find a female (of his choice) with which to bond, create azwajan (the plural of zawj – pairs), and similarly co-exist with each other as Islāmic spouses in a state of taskunoo.
This Arabic word “taskunoo” is derived from the verb “Sakinah” which isrendered, “[so that] you might be still, may find rest, harmony, peace, calmness, honour, tranquility, repose, happiness, and felicity”.
The state of “Sakinah” is the undisputed intended condition for all Islāmic Marriages, and save for the primal Islāmic Marriage, it is for the spouses to interact and mould for themselves that state. It is common sense that, Ādam, the primal human, knew nothing of the concept of zawj, had no idea of the form it was to take when applied to his race, was void of the power and could not have created his zawj, Ḥawwā’, and most certainly could not have conceived the state of Sakinah, as the optimum condition for their relationship.
Ādam and Ḥawwā’ had no choice, and were specifically created for each other with the clear Divine Intention, and Will, that they would be used to template and establish Islāmic Institution of Marriage, as well as prototype the optimum state of “Sakinah” (orderliness, stability and tranquility – taskunoo) in which the original spouses were, again by Divine Will, created to live. So, it was not left up to the ancient couple to bringing about the state of Sakinah in the relationship, rather, it was the All-Knowing Creator who, in wanting the primal humans to demonstrate living together in that state, caused the virtues of “mawwaddatan” and “raḥmah” to be fostered, bolstered and activated in them, and serve as the manifest and natural ḥanēefan qualities that are best for their relationship.
This intended state for the human marital relationship is quite similar, but is definitely not the same as the more intense version that is observed between the cosmic spouses (the sun and the moon). Their level of Sakinah is extremely concentrated, powerful and beautiful, such that when humans truly turn their vision to ponder the lower heavens (Sūrah Al-Mulk [Ch.67]:1-4), it has been divinely predicted that their vision and mental state will be so impacted, that they will find themselves “dazzled, dull and discomfited, in a state worn out”(Sūrah Al-Mulk [Ch.67]:4).
It is also plain and obvious that, at the core of the greater and more concentrated cosmic state of Sakinah, lies the resolute and unconditional obedience of the sun, moon, and stars, to the Divine Will Desires and Commands of Allāh (swt). Judging then by that, it would have been futile for those qualities of “mawwaddatan” and “raḥmah” to have been present in the consciousness and characters of Ādam and Ḥawwā’, but remain dormant. The whole purpose of the active presence of the beneficial features of “mawwaddatan” and “raḥmah”, is so that, at least in the initial stages, Ādam and Ḥawwā’ would model and demonstrate the qualities in consciousness, and character, of the ṣāaliḥēen, and that those qualities, as activated propensities, would cause them to do and manifest good and righteous conducts.
The truth is what Allāh (swt) has done and the words He has spoken. That being the case, because the nature, structure, and content of the Islāmic form ofmarriage accords with the divine fitra (fitrah), and is inclined towards good, it makes every bit of sense that one should adhere strictly to that tradition, and marry in accordance with its rites. To further underpin that justification, account should also be taken of the fact that despite their independent existence and their differences in gender, Ādam and Ḥawwā’ were both guaranteed a successful relationship, because of their cohesion, by Divine Will, with Allāh’s (swt) established laws of physics relating to attraction and opposites, and because they were both created, fully weaponized, with their respective activated qualities of “mawwaddatan” and “raḥmah”. These latter qualities gave them the necessary obedience in consciousness and character, and a pure and righteous Sakinah state with which to begin their Islāmic married life.
Briefly, the practical format in which the laws of physics were applied and appear is, firstly, the use of Allāh’s (swt) Divine Will as the “Strong Force” that acts between the two autonomous nafs that are the opposite in gender, and despite naturally repelling each other because of their respective limited freedom of desire, choice and will, they are bound and held together in a sacred marital union as the original husband and zawjat (wife/helpmate). The success in that feat is rooted in the fact that Ādam and Ḥawwā’ were both created with the same fitra (fitrah), and educated to attain the same consciousness and character that enabled them to fulfill their prime directive (namely, “liya’abudullāh” (obedient, trusting and confident in resigning, and submitting in servitude, to Allāh’s (swt) Divine Desires, Will, and Commands only).
Being that they were both created in the same state of Islām, and were also made to enjoyed a shared relationship that in actualitywas Sakinah (hence, “li-taskunoo”), the interaction between them would have been an exchange of good and righteous physical actions and words and, as a result of their continuous remembrance of Allāh (swt), the dread of Him (swt), and also their mutual emission of positive and righteous thoughts (consciously and subconsciously), their original and pristine consciousness and character would cause them to continue to bond and hold together, in the same way that subatomic particles, such as protons and neutrons, do.
That then is the scientific, practical and sensible rationale behind the following statement and command:
And hold fast, all together, by the rope which Allāh (stretches out for you), and be not divided among yourselves; and remember with gratitude Allāh‘s favour on you; for ye were enemies and He joined your hearts in love, so that by His Grace, ye became brethren; and ye were on the brink of the pit of Fire, and He saved you from it. Thus, doth Allāh make His ayāt clear to you: That ye may be guided. (Sūrah Al- ‘Imrān [Ch.3]: 103)
Do not marry unbelieving women until they believe: a slave woman who believes is better than an unbelieving woman even though she (the latter) allures you. Nor marry (your girls) to unbelievers until they believe. (Sūrah Al-Baqarah [Ch.2]: 221)
It should now make practical sense why humans are invited to marry, and why the Sūrah Al-Nisā’ (Ch.4]: 1) wording for the solemnization of Islāmic marriages speaks to the human origin, attests to their dependence on the principle of zawj (“Even”) and stresses the critical importance of “Taqwa”. This latter Arabic word refers to the need to be ever mindful of Allāh’s (swt) nurturing and sustaining kindness, mercy and power, by virtue of which humans exist as individuals and pairs, and are able to marry and enjoy rights, as well as the numerous other benefits. Therefore, the Islāmic marriage is, in essence, an active social structure that fosters continual remembrance, gratitude and obedience in submission to Allāh (swt), rather than disobedience to the Divine desires commands and will. If a person was to become disobedient, a state which Ādam and Ḥawwā’ later embraced, their conduct would be the result of them forgetting Allāh ([swt] – not remembering that Allāh [swt] gave them life, is their Lord, Govenor, Nourisher and Sustainer [Rabb], and will cause them to die and be raised to life again for accounting) which strictly amounts to a sin. That same conduct would also incline the perpetrator to evil and, spiritually and in actuality, would have the effect of: (i) disconnecting from believing in the reality and presence of Allāh (swt); (ii) entertaining doubts as to the certainty in meeting Him, for the purposes of accounting, in the future; and (iii) socially and spiritually, loosening the bond or letting go of the rope or tie that is the “Strong Force” that hold the married couple, indeed the community of Muslims together. It is in this way that Islāmic married couples who once had a very strong bond and beautiful relationship, becomes enemies and end up being divorced; hence they end up, figuratively speaking, in the Hell fire in this realm (Ad-Dunyaa), and in actuality in the Next/Other realm (Al-Akhira):
Unbelievers do but beckon you to the Hell fire. But Allāh beckons, by His grace, to Al-Jannat (the Garden (of Bliss/ Paradise) and to forgiveness, and to make His ‘ayāt (lessons, teachings, signs, miracles, evidences, and directives) clear to the human race: that they may receive admonition. (Sūrah Al-Baqarah [Ch.2]: 221)
Thus, within the context of Islāmic marriages, obedience and disobedience (its opposite) hold an extremely important position on its spiritual, physical, emotional, mental and commercial plains. Extrasensory Shay’tānic suggestions are corrosive because, whatever the form it takes, and how it is packaged, it incites disobedience. It is the abstract aspect of material actions that, if intelligence becomes perverted so that they are accepted, are willed to physically impact upon the “Strong Force” bond to physical weaken it, and ultimately destroy the tie of obedience completely.
Before concluding this subsection one should be at pains to note that, since Islāmic marriages are interactive relative to the changing circumstances in the successtion of states (the passing of time and life), there is an obvious and very clear connection between Sūrah Alt-Tēen (Ch.95:4-6), and the following ‘ayāh:
By (the passage of Trial) Time (through the ages), Verily Man (the race that is inclined to forget will find itself) is in loss, EXCEPT those who have achieved Faith (knowledge and understanding of “trust” and so as to be confident in demonstrating trustworthiness), and (the sincerity and integrity to) do righteous deeds, and enjoin (upon one another) in the mutual teaching and practice of Truth, and of Patience and Constancy in adversity. (Sūrah Al-‘Asr [Ch.103]:1-3)
Recall that the clear and unequivocal divine warning, issued in Sūrah Alt-Tēen (Ch.95:4-6), is that even with the optimum in human intelligence, and positive mental, physical, spiritual and emotional attributes, there are some human beings whose love of ignorance and disobedience will inevitably cause them to be reduced, in their character, consciousness and behavior, to lower than the lowest animal. The suggested and implied reason is that they are not obedient to the divine instruction to remain active in doing “deeds of righteousness” (that is to say, the continuous obedience in submission over time, to the doing of what Allāh (swt) has guided, desired, willed and commanded).
What Sūrah Al-‘Asr (Ch.103:1-3) brings to the table of Sūrah Alt-Tēen,is an amplification in understanding of the practical “living” process by which the debasing of humans occurs, so that they destroy with their own hands their Islāmic marriages. It explains firstly, that it takes firm and steadfast obedience to the guidelines in Sūrah Al-Rūm (Ch.30: 21) for the noble qualities of “mawwaddatan” and “rahmah” to be present. However, the Divine Swearing in Sūrah Al-‘Asr (Ch.103:1-3) turns onthe requirement for those attributes to be active and continuously present in both spouses. Attraction and the state of Sakinah can only exist when there is an absence of differences in standards, and the qualities in conscioueness, character and conduct; hence the Deen (Way of Life) of Islām, demands that Muslims (which is a reference to persons that are obedient and submissive to Allāh [swt]) should only marry other Muslims, so that together they can attain highest measure of Sakinah on planet Earth, and the supreme success of residing in bliss in Jannat, while enjoying the company of the righteous.
When the noble qualities of “mawwaddatan” and “rahmah” are present in one and not the other spouse, that is tantamount to the marrying together of obedience and disobedience, in the guise of the persons that the spouses in that marriage. Commonsense tell us that the relationship will be under a strain from the onset, and whatever the state of Sakinah they delude themselves into believing existed, it will become impacted by repeated conflicts, eventually becoming lost, and could lead inevitably to the spouses being divorced.
However, when both spouses are resolute as regards demonstrating “mawwaddatan” and “raḥmah”, in their respective consciousness, character and conducts, their continuous action will carve out in their cranial brain, a neurological path that makes, as their naturally inclined behavior, the actioning of: (i) the principles of trust and being trustworthy and truthful; (ii) the concept and the actual practice of patient perseverance; and (iii) constancy in the face of actual adversity and calamities. It is when one or both spouses are not resolute as regards doing what Allāh (swt) has guided, desired, willed and commanded (righteous deeds), that they inevitably will become: (i) forgetful and unable to demonstrate the virtuous actions of “mawwaddatan” and “raḥmah”; and (ii) mutually lacking in the ability to correctly and justly admonish, and encourage the proper understanding of the challenges associated with, and comprised in the situations forming the passages of time.As a consequence, they will form new (wrongdoings) habitual actions, bringing into play neuroplasticity; the ability of the cranial brain to abandon the synaptic connections forming the hitherto obedient and naturally good inclined behaviors, and to reorganize new synaptic neurological connections or pathways of the disobedient and ungodly consciousness, character and conducts (a new and false ego/self of the person’s own making). It is this change in the synaptic neurological connections that heralds the loss and absence of the state of Sakinah, and the presence of a state of marital disturbance and disorder.
The Unseen Knowledge and information in the Glorious Arabic Qur’ān is the truth, and what it has explained, in quite graphic terms, is the actual workings of the above processes, during the lifetime of Ādam and Ḥawwā’ in Al-Akhirah. What has been deduced then is that, upon entering Jannat, Al-Akhirah, as confirmed in Sūrah Alt-Tēen (Ch.95:4-6), Ādam and Ḥawwā’ enjoyed the optimum mental, physical, chemical, emotional, and spiritual state. In the course of the passage of “Time” in that realm, the gifts of “hearing”, “seeing” and “’afidah” caused the primal humans (as sworn to in Sūrah Al-‘Asr [Ch.103:1-3]) to become inevitably exposed to the challenges posed by the situations forming the contents of the succession of those Al-Akhirah states. It was as a direct result of Ādam and Ḥawwā’ becoming disobedient that they, lost their pristine orderly, stable, blissful, and tranquil state(their state of Sakinah), together with their, hitherto, unspoilt qualities in consciousness and characters of “pleasantness, warmth, dignity, cordiality, protection, friendliness, unselfish affection, happiness, and politeness”,(mawwaddatan) and “mercy, compassion, kindness, affection” (raḥmah):
Then did Shay’tān make them slip from the (original pristine condition), and get them out of the erstwhile state (of felicity) in which they had been. We said: “Get ye down, all (ye people), with enmity between yourselves. On earth will be your dwelling-place and your means of livelihood – for a time.” (Sūrah Al-Baqarah [Ch.2]: 36)
But, before reviewing their experiences, let us recall what were the prerequisites to Ādam being divinely blessed by Allāh (swt) with Ḥawwā’ as his zawjat (wise/helpmate) and how those primal spouses were naturally defined.